What is it?Orchitis (from the Greek. urchis - egg) - an inflammation of the tissue yaichka.Epididimit - an inflammation of the epididymis yaichka.Obychno with the defeat of one of these and other affected organs. Acute epididymitis is most often seen in men aged 15-30 years and after 60. In childhood epididymitis is rare.
What causes orchitis and epididymitis?The cause of orchitis in the first place, are infectious diseases such as influenza, typhoid, mumps, scarlet fever, chicken pox, pneumonia, brucellosis, and many others is sometimes the cause of orchitis is mycobacterium tuberculosis or trauma of the testicle. But most of orchitis develops in inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system - urethritis, prostatitis, vesicles, epididymitis.
The causes of epididymitis, the same as that of orchitis. Above all, an inflammation of the epididymis may contribute to some infections, sexually transmitted diseases, in particular, ureaplasma, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, gardnerella, etc.
The appearance of epididymitis often contributes to injury scrotum, perineum, pelvis, and all those factors that contribute to stagnation of blood in the pelvis. Occurrence of acute epididymitis may be preceded by a violation of the outflow of urine due to enlarged prostate or narrowing of the urethra.
In the egg gets an infection from purulent lesions in the body. In the epididymis of the urethra, prostate, seminal vesicles.
Risk factor for disease is the use of urinary catheters, which can be entered infection. Catheter - polyvinyl tube that is introduced through the urethra into the bladder if the patient is on strict bedrest.
A special type of epididymitis is the appearance of the disease after sterilization - ligation or removal of vas deferens. At the same sperms produced in the testes do not have time to disperse, accumulate in and cause inflammation of the appendages.
Of particular medical problem is viral orchitis epididymitis, which is a complication of mumps (mumps). In adolescents, this condition develops in 20-40% of cases and can lead to atrophy of the testicles, and sometimes even male infertility.
What are the symptoms of these diseases and what can be complications?In its current orchitis is an acute or chronic. Acute orchitis is usually caused by an acute inflammatory disease, chronic - chronic.
Epididymitis is as acute or chronic.
Acute orchitisOrchitis begins with the appearance of pain in the testicle. The pain may be given in the groin, perineum, lower back, sacrum. The scrotum on the side of the disease is increased 2-fold or more, her skin is smooth, loses its folds due to edema, a few days after the onset disease of the skin of scrotum reddens dramatically, it is hot, can take on a glossy shade. Sore testicle is enlarged, sharply painful to the touch.
Along with pain in the scrotum appear common symptoms of inflammation - fatigue, fever, 38-39 degrees, chills, headache, nausea, loss of appetite.
Usually, even without treatment, the disease resolves on its own in 2-4 weeks. But in some cases inflammation of the testicle causes it to suppuration, the development of testicular abscess. Scrotal skin then becomes bright red, smooth, sharply painful to the touch. Subsequently, this complication may develop a secretory form of infertility.
Acute epididymitisIn its current acute epididymitis is similar to an acute orchitis.
But if left untreated in a few days the inflammatory process in the epididymis may cause it to fester. Another complication of epididymitis - inflammation of the transition to the egg, the development of acute orchitis. With prolonged duration of inflammation in the epididymis in its final connective tissue can grow, leading to obstruction of the epididymis for sperm. In bilateral epididymitis it will cause obstructive forms of infertility.
Chronic orchitisChronic orchitis develops in the wrong or inadequate treatment of acute orchitis, or as a complication of chronic inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system - chronic prostatitis, urethritis, vesicles. In chronic orchitis is often the only manifestation of disease is a painful testicle to the touch. During the acute illness, pain in the testicle when walking.
Chronic orchitis are more likely than a sharp, leads to a decrease in testicular secretory function and can cause infertility.
Chronic epididymitisChronic epididymitis is called inflammation of the epididymis, which lasts for 6 months or more.
Chronic epididymitis is most often develops in specific inflammatory diseases (syphilis, tuberculosis) or after sterilization of males. It shows a constant or recurrent pain in the scrotum, especially when walking, as a rule, without its increase (swelling). The pain may be given in the groin, pelvis, lower back. The body temperature regularly rises to 37 degrees. Epididymis to the touch tight, painful, with areas of compaction.
Chronic epididymitis is more common than acute, it is bilateral and has a much higher probability lead to a bilateral obliteration (obstruction) of the epididymis and cause obstructive form of infertility.
ProphylaxisPrevention of orchitis and epididymitis is reduced to the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of the urinary organs, careful monitoring of their condition at the time of common infectious diseases (mumps, influenza, scarlet fever, pneumonia, etc.), trauma scrotum, perineum and pelvis.
What can you do?In patients who underwent orchitis and / or epididymitis, there are processes of sperm disorders. Particular attention should treat bilateral orchitis or epididymitis, since the probability of remaining barren extremely high. In the case of orchitis and / or epididymitis self unacceptable, an urgent need to seek medical attention.
If there is an acute process in the urogenital system, you must treat him to a full recovery. If the disease becomes chronic, you must always be observed by your doctor (urologist) to avoid unwanted complications.
What can a doctor do?Your doctor will do all the necessary examinations and prescribe treatment, which should lead to full recovery. In some cases, treatment may require a hospital stay.
With the development of an abscess (an abscess) or testicular epididymal it opened and drained. In severe cases, complete melting of testicular tissue produces pus orchiectomy - the unilateral removal of the testicle.
With the development of the epididymis abscesses in severe cases, removal of the epididymis produce
With timely treatment of acute process, a favorable prognosis.
If there is no treatment or inadequate treatment, it can lead to infertility.