GeneralThe most common disease that leads to a gradual narrowing and complete occlusion (blockage) of the lumen of the aorta and major arteries - atherosclerosis. In addition, chronic arterial insufficiency result in disorders such as thromboangiitis obliterans and aortoarteritis. Despite the different nature of these diseases, they all manifest a syndrome of chronic ischemia (lack of flow of oxygen-rich arterial blood) limbs and organs.
The causes of arterial diseaseThromboangiitis obliterans and nespetsifichecky aortoarteriit this systemic diseases that are immune nature and are accompanied by lesions of the arteries and veins of different caliber.
Arteriosclerosis obliterans is a chronic disease, which is based on the degenerative changes of the vascular wall with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on the surface and the narrowing of the lumen of the vessel in the area. Risk factors for atherosclerosis is smoking, hypertension, diabetes, lipid disorders, poor diet, lack of exercise.
SymptomsIn the early stages characterized by complaints of increased sensitivity to cold temperatures, coldness of extremities, numbness, paresthesias (tingling sensations) and the fatigue of the affected limb.
The main symptom of occlusive arterial disease of the lower extremities is intermittent claudication. It is the appearance while walking quite sharp pain perceived in a certain group of muscles and forcing the patient to stop driving. This is due to insufficient inflow of arterial blood to meet the needs of the muscles during exercise. After a short rest the pain ceases, and the patient can go back a certain distance. Depending on the distance, which overcomes the patient prior to pain symptoms, providing 4 stage. At the third stage the patient can go a few steps, there is pain at rest. On the 4th trophic disorders occur in the tissues of the legs as ulceration and necrosis.
With the progression of the disease, in addition to intermittent claudication, patients have a dry skin, loss of hair and subcutaneous fat in the legs, thickening of the nail.
What you can do?Following these recommendations usually leads to a doubling or even greater increase in walkable distance.
What can a doctor?Diagnosis is based on clinical data, palpation, and auscultation of the pulsation of blood vessels. Of special methods most widely used Doppler ultrasound, duplex scanning, transcutaneous oxygen tension change. The final stage of the survey is angiography. This X-ray technique that allows you to see all of the bloodstream from the aorta to the foot.
Drug Treatment usually consists of means improving the rheological properties (flowability) of blood, drugs which activate the metabolic processes in the tissues and reduce the level of atherogenic lipids. In some cases, may require the use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Surgical treatment may be necessary already in the 2-3 stage. It can be endovascular intervention or open surgery to repair the broken blood flow. In advanced stages, when there is a gangrenous limb, it may require amputation.