OverviewKidney stones are hard, crystal-like mass. They consist of salts that are part of normal human urine in small amounts. Stones vary in size and shape. They may be tiny grains that pass unnoticed in the urine, and can be large (5 cm diameter) formations of complex shape. Usually people do not know about his disease, until the stones begin to change their position and move on urinary pathways. Even a small stone, leaving the kidneys, can cause excruciating pain.
The reasonsMost likely to develop kidney stones in humans with hereditary predisposition. Causes of salt deposits in the kidney stone formation and may be an excess of calcium or uric acid in the blood, which are caused by metabolic disorders (eg, hyperparathyroidism, excessive intake of vitamin D, gout). The important role played by inadequate fluid intake into the body or vice versa is a great loss of fluid (eg, due to excessive use of diuretics). Both lead to the formation of very concentrated urine, which contributes to the formation of stones. When kidney infections can occur urine stasis and change its acidity. Long-term strict bed rest also contributes to the stones.
Symptoms. Kidney StonesUsually the first symptom is a sharp stabbing pain in his back (in a sick kidney) or in the lower abdomen. The pain may spread to the groin, and accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The pain will last for as long as the stone does not come out with the urine, because the muscular wall of the ureter will try to push him out. The consequence of damage to the mucosa of the urinary tract may be the presence of blood in the urine (visible or invisible to the eye). Going down to the bladder, the stone will cause a strong urge to urinate and a burning sensation when urinating. "Exit" kidney stones (renal colic) may also be accompanied by a fever with chills.
In the presence of these symptoms (pain in the back or side pain in lower abdomen, nausea and vomiting, pain in the groin, a strong urge to urinate or burning with urination) you should seek emergency medical attention or call a doctor. If these symptoms appear on your background of already existing chronic diseases of urinary system, you also need to call the doctor. In case of fever or bleeding, you may need hospitalization.
ComplicationsThe main complications are:
- Blockage of the urinary tract stones and disorders of urine outflow;
- Infections of the urinary tract.
If untreated, these complications lead to renal failure.
What you can do?To relieve pain and reduce fever, pain, and take antispasmodics.
If the pain does not subside or you notice blood in your urine, call your doctor.
What can a doctor?The physician should relieve the pain, and then conduct the necessary tests (including urine tests, ultrasound of the kidneys). Sometimes for testing and determining the composition of rocks is necessary to collect the stones released.
Your doctor may recommend further treatment, which includes diet and drug therapy. If the stone has increased in size (as seen on x-ray or ultrasonography), does not come out, causing constant pain and stagnation of urine, causes of urinary tract infections, and bleeding may require surgical intervention. Currently used methods of ultrasonic fragmentation of kidney stones.
Preventive measuresIt is important to prevent the recurrence of stones. After all, urolithiasis chronic disease and the formation of new stones are very likely.
Drink 12-16 glasses of water a day. Be sure to follow the prescribed diet. The diet is made on the basis of determining the composition of rocks.
If your doctor has prescribed medication for the prevention of recurrent stone formation, it is necessary to strictly follow all recommendations.