OverviewHemodialysis - is one of the methods of extrarenal blood purification. It is based on the principle of penetration of substances through a semipermeable membrane that removes from the blood of toxic substances and metabolic products. The need for dialysis occurs in severe kidney disease, or when entering into the blood more toxic than the healthy kidney may take (for example, in the case of poisoning).
Indications for useThe need for hemodialysis is set by physicians, depending on the diagnosis and the patient's condition.
The main indications for hemodialysis include:
- Acute and chronic renal failure;
- Dialysis poisoning toxins (unfortunately, not all toxins can be removed from the body by this method);
- An overdose of drugs;
- Severe electrolyte disorders of the blood.
It is understood that in chronic kidney disease are beginning to perform hemodialysis, when renal insufficiency is not amenable to conservative therapy and changes in the terminal stage. Hemodialysis in such a situation is a method of maintenance therapy.
Principle of operationApparatus for hemodialysis consist of three components: a device for blood supply, facilities for preparation and submission of dialysate, and dialyzer. Most of the dialyzer unit. The most important functional element of it is semi-permeable membrane, which is made from natural materials based on cellulose, or synthetic materials. Taken from the patient's arterial blood is passed through the dialyzer and is located on one side of a semipermeable membrane, whereas the solution in its electrolyte composition similar to the circulating blood, collected from the other side of it. The water contained in the blood and unwanted waste products of the body and toxins are filtered through the membrane. Proteins, blood cells, bacteria and substances with a molecular weight of more than 30,000 across the membrane does not take place. The purified blood is then returned to the patient through a vein.
The procedure for hemodialysisBefore the start of dialysis patients examined by a doctor measures the blood pressure, pulse and temperature. The patient is then placed vascular access and is connected to a dialysis machine. During the procedure are permanent monitoring of the patient. At the end of hemodialysis catheter to the area of aseptic dressing is applied. Duration and frequency of sessions, a physician determines the individual patient.
Complications of Hemodialysis- Hypotension;
- Muscle convulsions;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Infectious diseases.