GeneralSkin rash in children may be a manifestation of more than one hundred different diseases. You do not necessarily understand this set of states. However, some of them can be really dangerous for the baby. Therefore, the appearance of any rash should be in time to address the pediatrician. Do not forget that describe the appearance of the skin on the phone pointless, a doctor should see the changes with your own eyes.
ReasonsThe causes of rashes in children can be divided into four main groups:
- Infectious and parasitic diseases;
- Allergic reactions
- Disease of the blood and blood vessels;
- The lack of proper hygiene.
If the cause of the rash is an infection, you will notice in your child and her other symptoms such as fever, chills, cough, runny nose, sore throat, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, etc. This rash may be a first symptom of current infection and appear 2-3 days.
Among infectious diseases rash is usually accompanied by such common childhood illnesses such as chicken pox, measles, rubella and scarlet fever.
The most dangerous is the meningococcal infection. Meningococcus is a bacterium that usually causes nasopharyngitis, easily amenable to treatment, but in some cases it leads to meningitis (inflammation of the membranes of the brain) and blood infection (meningococcemia). The rash of meningococcemia has the form of hemorrhage and is accompanied by a high fever. The disease is extremely dangerous - from the onset of the rash until the death of a person can take less than a day. That is why at the slightest suspicion of meningococcal disease sick brought to the hospital and immediately begin treatment. With timely treatment the chances of a good outcome - 80-90%.
Allergic rash occurs after ingestion or contact with any allergen. Moreover, the allergen can serve as anything: chocolate, milk, nuts, and an assortment of medicines, pet hair particles, detergent or conditioner for clothes, body cream, cloth, which is made of underwear, etc. Allergic reactions may occur even after a light touch to anything. A classic example of this sort in a rash as a result of burns or nettle jellyfish. Carefully assessing the diet and environment of your child, you should be able to understand the reason of allergy. Do not forget that mosquito bites in children also cause local allergic reaction due to this multiple tracks from mosquito bites can sometimes be mistaken for a rash.
The cause of the rash can also be skin parasites. Scabies, for example, is caused by a mite, which does a tiny tunnels in the thin skin of the interdigital spaces, wrists, genitals and other body parts. In places there is a very itchy lesions of the skin. Scabies is a highly contagious disease and requires treatment by a dermatologist.
The rash of diseases of blood vessels and is usually hemorrhagic in nature, ie, hemorrhage occurs as a result of the skin. Depending on the disease, it can be as large bruises all colors of the rainbow, and punctulate rash covering the entire body.
Due to the nature of children and frequent skin defects hygiene Often the disease is in its infancy sudamen, diaper rash, diaper rash. Do not over wrap up the child. Try not to leave the child in wet diapers or nappies. More often tempted to bathe the child, as well as let his skin breathe regular air baths practice.
MeaslesIn this viral infection rash often appears not once, but after 2-4 days after the temperature began to rise and there catarrhal phenomena (redness throat, runny nose, cough). The rash of measles spreads from the top down: appears first on the face and head, then to the upper half of the torso and arms, and then goes down below his feet, covering the 3 days the whole body. The spots are slightly raised above the surface of the skin, they are large and can merge.
Varicella (chickenpox in people)Varicella rash usually appear on the face, scalp, trunk. Their character is changing the course of the disease: slightly protruding above the skin red spots in a few hours turn into bubbles with a transparent, then mutneyuschim content. The size of the bubbles varicella no more than 4-5mm. In the future, they dry up and in their place are formed brownish crust. The rash of chickenpox is always accompanied by itching. A very important feature of this type of rash podsypaniya (appearance of new elements), which is often accompanied by another surge of temperature.
RubellaRash of rubella appears along with signs of intoxication, fever, increased neck lymph nodes. Numerous small spots (less than 3-5 mm in diameter) appear in a few hours, apply a top-down, but is much faster than with measles rash comes a day-to-toe, rash lasts an average of three days, then disappear without a trace. A characteristic localization are extensor surfaces of the arms and legs, buttocks. It should be remembered that this viral infection is dangerous for pregnant women because of the adverse effects on the fetus. So if you suspect your child have rubella do not invite guests to pregnant.
Scarlet FeverThe disease begins with the classic symptoms of angina. Rash connected thereto, typically on the second day. It represents melkotochechnye elements covering the entire body surface. They are especially numerous in the inguinal folds, elbow folds, armpits, abdomen. At the site of the most abundant red skin rash, swelling, hot to the touch. After 2-3 days the symptoms, including rash, taper off, accompanied by a strong peeling of the skin.
Allergic rashAlmost always appears suddenly, often accompanied by profuse watery eyes and runny nose, itchy strongly. Eruptions prominent, well-marked. Admission antiallergic drugs and eliminates the itching and rash itself.
ScabiesWhen scabies rash is accompanied by painful itching and looks like dots, often arranged in pairs, 2-3 mm apart. The typical localization of the hand and between the toes, the surface of the abdomen.
Bite markTraces from the bites of mosquitoes and other insects are often mistaken for infectious rash. At the site of the bite into a red itchy bump (pimple). The characteristic localization, season of the year, location and the absence of additional symptoms will help you and your doctor to distinguish a rash of infectious.
What you can do?If you have found out your child's skin rash, try to follow the following rules:
1) You should always call a doctor to the house to see if the presence of an infectious disease does not infect others in the clinic and in transport. In addition, any patient with a rash should be isolated from pregnant women until the doctor says it's not rubella.
2) If you suspect your child with meningococcal infection, immediately call the "first aid".
3) Prior to the arrival of a doctor is not necessary to grease the rash is particularly solutions with coloring agents (eg, "green paint"). As you know, the main causes rashes internal. Therefore, the pronounced positive effect of blurring the elements you will not get a rash. However, the doctor will be much more difficult to diagnose.
If you suspect that the rash is caused by contact with clothing. Remember that in addition to unsuitable material, allergies can cause residues of detergent or fabric softener. Try changing the manufacturer or company use hypoallergenic hygiene.
What can a doctor?Only after careful questioning and examination of the child doctor will be able to make the correct diagnosis and treatment. Viral infections usually do not require specific treatment for bacterial diseases to antibiotics. In the treatment of allergic conditions of the foundation is to stop exposure to the allergen and the suppression of excessive immune response antihistamines, corticosteroids and other drugs. Depending on the severity of these drugs can be used in the form of ointments, pills, injections, etc. If the rash is caused by disease or blood vessel, the pediatrician to refer the child to a consultation with a hematologist. Treatment for scabies is conducted dermatologist and includes, among other things, a number of anti-measures.
PreventionPrevention of childhood infections primarily includes compliance with the immunization schedule. You should know that from meningococcal vaccine was also developed. Talk to your pediatrician and find out when your child should be vaccinated against this dangerous infection.
Vaccination is the greatest invention of the people that made it possible to prevent many serious diseases. On the other hand, each graft is an integer test for a little gentle child's body. In some cases, children suffer vaccine is not very easy - there may be an allergic reaction or fever. This does not mean that further vaccinations should be abolished. Do not forget to remind the doctor about previous reactions, and he will advise your child in a day or two before the scheduled vaccinations take antihistamines.
Allergic disease is very common in childhood. This is due to an immature immune system in infants. On any new stimulus such immune system reacts hyperergic (superstrong). Try to introduce new foods gradually, one by one. Then you'll know reliably what was the cause of food allergies. A child with a tendency to allergic reactions must be under the supervision of an allergist. With proper treatment, most children with age "outgrow their allergies", That is the one allergen that previously did not give to live in peace, in a few years completely ceases to disturb human.