What is periodontal disease and parodontitis?
Periodontal disease – a term that reflects systemic noninflammatory lesion periodontal tissues (periodontal).
Periodontium – a tissue that hold teeth. These include bone, gums, mucous membrane and ligament.
Parodontitis – Is inflammation in the tissues surrounding the tooth. Parodontitis is the second most common disease of dental system after caries.
Parodontitis is an infectious disease, at which the destruction of the supporting apparatus of the tooth. In Parodontitis the infection gets into the space between the tooth and gum and begins to destroy the root of the tooth with a bunch of bones.
In 100% of the adult population and 80% of the children, according to experts, WHO, observed certain signs of Parodontitis.
Parodontitis is a major cause of tooth loss in older age.
The causes of periodontal disease and Parodontitis
Causes of periodontal disease are not known until the end. A role played by genetic predisposition, periodontal disease often develops on the background of other pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, hypovitaminosis, changes in reactivity, etc. Does malnutrition, and the tissues surrounding the tooth, due to the nature of blood circulation in the zone (atherosclerotic changes of blood vessels).
Local factors, such as the impact of microorganisms on the periodontium, can only be a burden during the process.
Parodontitis may be a consequence of the pathogenic microorganisms that accumulate in the plaque and tartar, dental trauma, caries, poorly performed dental prosthesis, or restoration of breaches of the tooth. Substantially increases the risk of Parodontitis breach of oral hygiene, the curvature of the teeth and malocclusion, especially nutrition, reduce overall immune reactivity of the patient.
The main cause of gum disease is bacterial plaque, which is a sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on teeth. If plaque is not removed, it hardens and forms a rough porous build-up, which is called tartar. With the progression of the disease toxins can lead to destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth. Between the tooth and gum formed space – gingival pocket, which is filled with bloom. Bone supporting the teeth are subject to continuous destruction.
Parodontitis can develop gum disease gingivitis after another disease or Parodontitis.
Symptoms of periodontal disease and parodontitis
With Parodontitis disease process is non-inflammatory in nature and manifests itself exposing the necks of the teeth due to the destruction of the tissues around the tooth. At the same time retain their teeth for a long time a good fixation (it breaks down later, when the tooth is exposed over a large area), there are minor dental plaque, staining pale gums, gingival pockets, and no pus discharge. The patient is worried about the necks of teeth hypersensitivity, itching in the gums. Slowly progressing, the disease can lead to tooth loss.
Unfortunately, periodontal disease tend to slow development. At the initial stage of gum disease does not cause pain and other sensations.
The disease develops without symptoms, progressively destroying the periodontium. Therefore, patients are usually in no hurry to go to the doctor.
Parodontitis may be expressed differently depending on the stage, and often begins with bleeding gums. At this stage the process is reversible is not affected by periodontal ligament that surrounds the tooth and connects it with the adjacent, so that the chewing pressure distributed evenly throughout the tooth row and there is an overload in the periodontal tissues.
Without treatment, the process gets further and destroys the periodontal ligament, there is a periodontal pocket, which, in turn, has been postponed and a stone plaque and stimulates further progression of the process. Periodontal tissues (gums surrounding the tooth, bone) are destroyed, and the tooth starts to wobble, losing bone support in the jaw. At this stage, can be observed as the change of teeth, their pathological mobility, the emergence of gaps between them, the impaired function of mastication, traumatic articulation.
The initial period of the disease is characterized by itching, throbbing in the gums, mobility of teeth, a sense of discomfort when chewing, foul-smelling breath. With the progression of the support apparatus of the tooth is loosened, increased tooth mobility, tooth necks are exposed and acquire an increased sensitivity. The lack of adequate treatment at this stage leads to the loss of healthy teeth.
Exacerbation of chronic Parodontitis is usually associated with the sharp deterioration of the patient’s general condition (infectious disease, heart failure, etc.). If there is a sharp worsening throbbing pain, fever, malaise and weakness. There is bright redness and swelling of the gums, dentogingival pocket of pus.
Treatment of periodontal disease
Treatment is complex, aimed at stabilizing the pathological process. Assign tools to improve blood circulation and regeneration processes in the periodontium (massage gums, gum dos, darsonvalization, and other physical therapy procedures), treats the underlying disease.
Treatment of parodontitis
The disease requires immediate intervention of a dentist. Treatment of Parodontitis involves non-surgical and surgical methods. The first (occupational health) are used in the early stages of the disease and prevention. It involves removing plaque (mechanical or ultrasonic) and polishing the tooth surface with subsequent treatment of the crown and root of the tooth brush with a special fluorine-containing protective varnish.
There is a procedure for removing deep tartar, which is called curettage: The doctor removes the deposits by means of special hooks, shovels, curettes (closed curettage), or if you need surgery, cutting the gums (open curettage). Another method of surgical treatment is a patchwork method, when the upper part of the gum is removed, the roots of your teeth cleaned, and the flap is sutured into place. The problem of surgical techniques – eliminate gum pockets (a consequence of resorption of bone tissue) to the tooth regained stability.
With proper and timely treatment of Parodontitis may keep your teeth and to normalize quality of life. If you do not deal with the problem there is a risk to lose their teeth at a young age.
The rational and systematic treatment of the hygienic oral care can achieve remission (cure). In the absence of treatment or neglect of the regime of rehabilitation – complete destruction of periodontal bone and tooth loss.
Prevention includes the full supervised dental oral care, as well as early detection and elimination of the causes of the disease.
What can you do?
Even if your teeth look healthy, it does not mean that gum disease are absent.
For any problem arising from the gums or teeth, such as sensitivity, swelling, pain, bleeding, etc., you should immediately consult a dentist to adequately assess the seriousness of the problem.
What can a doctor?
Only a dentist and hygienist with a simple research can determine the presence or absence of periodontal disease. The essence of the study is to measure the dentogingival pocket (in Parodontitis) using a special probe. This method allows the doctor to quickly and painlessly assess the condition of your gums, suggest a treatment plan to prevent further development of the disease, to develop a special mode of self-care that will meet the particular situation.