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What is gingivitis?

Gingivitis - a disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gums. The word comes from the Latin gingivitis gingiva (gums) and the end of the "um", usually characterized by an inflammatory process in medicine.

Gingivitis - a fairly common disease. Gingivitis is often found in adolescents and pregnant women. These categories of patients the disease is usually more severe due to hormonal changes in the body.

The progression of gingivitis without the necessary treatment can lead to more serious complications, such as periodontitis, which eventually leads to tooth loss.

Causes of gingivitis

Causes of gingivitis are very diverse. They can be divided into internal and external.

The internal causes include: the growth of the teeth (tooth growing injure the gums), pathology of malocclusion, vitamin deficiencies, gastro-intestinal tract (all parts of the digestive system somehow interrelated), low immunity (for the mouth is of particular importance not only common, but local immunity) and other causes.

The external causes include physical effects (trauma, burns, radiation exposure), chemical (the effect of corrosive substances), biological (infection) and medical (iatrogenic) factors. More likely to cause gingivitis tartar, plaque, food debris, properly sealing, mouth breathing, smoking, chemical irritation, infection. The most relevant for children and adults is infectious gingivitis. In children, they most often occur in the absence of proper hygiene. The fact that the local immune system up to 7 years is just being formed, and its formation is completely ends by the beginning of puberty, so even in the absence of chronic inflammatory lesions the risk of gingivitis in children above. He is even higher in children who have a center of infection in the form of tooth decay. That's a lot of untreated decayed teeth common cause of gingivitis. Gingivitis are also common in children suffering from rheumatism, tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the liver and gall bladder, and other nephropathies.

Prolonged use of certain drugs, such as oral contraceptives can increase inflammation in the gums. Heavy metals (lead, bismuth) are also sometimes able to induce gingivitis.

Signs of Gingivitis

The following types of gingivitis: catarrhal, necrotizing, hypertrophic and atrophic gingivitis.

In terms of form of the disease, traditionally distinguish acute and chronic. The chronic form is exacerbated mainly in winter and spring (it shows the increasing bleeding gums) and is more common in adults.

If the disease affects the gums of all teeth in one or both jaws, then we speak of generalized (disseminated), gingivitis, is characterized as a localized inflammation of the gums at selected sites in the area of one or more teeth.

Clinical symptoms of catarrhal gingivitis is caused by inflammation redness, swelling of the mucous membrane of the gums, bleeding. Subjective feelings of the patient with a form of gingivitis are a little itchy gums, pain during meals.

Necrotizing gingivitis is characterized by the appearance of the mucous membrane of the gums and necrotic ulcers. Its clinical symptoms are: halitosis (bad breath), severe sore gums, overall health is also deteriorating patient feels general weakness, may increase the body temperature to 39 degrees C, swollen lymph nodes.

In hypertrophic gingivitis is an increase in gingival papillae, which begin to cover themselves part of the tooth. In the initial stages of the disease does not manifest any clinical symptoms and discomfort, the later having bleeding gums and pain when touched, and during the meal.

In atrophic gingivitis, on the contrary, there is atrophy (reduction) of gum tissue, gradually decreasing levels of gum and it reveals the root of the tooth. Subjectively for human atrophic gingivitis is manifested by pain in the cold or hot.

It is important that gingivitis is quite often the only sign of periodontitis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth root, alveolar bone and gums) or periodontitis (inflammation at the same time is less pronounced than the destructive processes).


For the prevention of gingivitis necessary to perform the following simple rules:

- Regular checkup at the dentist.
- Remove dental plaque daily with toothpaste and a silk thread.
- Clean your teeth at the dentist every 3-6 months.


Uncomplicated gingivitis usually ends after 7-10 days, chronic also requires intensive treatment. If gingivitis is left untreated, it can lead to periodontal disease and tooth loss (gingivitis is even more common cause of their loss than tooth decay).

What can a doctor do?

Treatment of gingivitis should be done only by a dentist. Treatment of gingivitis is the impact on dental plaque removal of local and general predisposing factors. In some cases, surgery is necessary (curettage).

In addition, it is often necessary to resort to special means, not only for the treatment of the acute phase of illness, but also to slow down or stop the development of serious complications.

Apply a variety of drugs: antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, local immunomodulators.

When gingivitis caused by infectious and inflammatory processes, it is necessary to eliminate the infectious agent. Therefore, the doctor may prescribe antibacterial agents or antifungal agent.

What can you do?

First of all, you must carefully follow good oral hygiene. Your doctor will provide you with necessary recommendations.