Fluorosis – a disease that develops during long-term intake of high amounts of fluorine compounds. There are two types of dental fluorosis: endemic and professional. Endemic fluorosis occurs in certain areas and is associated with the use of water from an early age with a high content of fluorine. Professional fluorosis can occur in people who work in enterprises where the air fluorine content exceeds sanitary standards. Depending on the type of dental fluorosis, he manifested primarily changes in the enamel of the teeth or bone disease.

The causes of the disease

In accordance with the sanitary standards the maximum permissible concentration of fluoride in the water should not exceed 1.5 mg/l. From excessive amounts of fluoride affects mainly children between tabs molars and bones of the skeleton. Even with the slight increase in the fluorine content increases dramatically the number of children who get fluorosis. For adults, the critical level of fluoride in water is 6 mg/l. At this concentration may develop pathological changes in the already formed bone tissue and teeth.

Symptoms of fluorosis

Endemic fluorosis in most cases shows a specific lesion of the molars in children. Depending on the severity of the teeth appear white or brown spots, erosion, abrasion, and increased fragility of enamel. When the concentration of fluoride in the water more than 610 mg/l in children and could experience the initial form of bone disease.
When used enamel fluorosis, mottling is usually absent. The disease is manifested lesions of the skeleton (bone pain and joint pain, decreased mobility of joints), in severe cases may be dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, liver, and muscle weakness.

Diagnosis of dental fluorosis

Depending on the clinical manifestations of the diagnosis “Fluorosis” can put a dentist, pediatrician or internist. In the presence of lesions of bone and joint system for the diagnosis of X-rays may be needed.

Treatment of dental fluorosis

Specific treatment of this disease does not exist. Treatment is aimed mainly at removing cosmetic defects of the teeth, as well as to prevent the further admission of fluoride in the body.


The optimum fluoride in drinking water is 1 mg/l. At such concentrations are rarely observed fluorosis, but at the same time ensured a pronounced effect protivokarioznye. Therefore, you should be aware of the content of fluoride in drinking water, which was used we and our children. In Russia, fluorosis occurs in Moscow (Kolomna), Tver, Tambov and other areas. Preventive measures include the use of endemic outbreak of water without fluoride, foods with a low content of this element, non-fluoride toothpaste.

Prevention of occupational fluorosis should be directed to the elimination of the maximum working contact with the compounds of fluorine, which is provided by the mechanization and automation of production and sealing equipment. If you know that your work is connected with a high content of fluorine in the inspired air did not forget to use personal protective equipment and undergo regular check-ups.

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