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Changes in Tooth Enamel


Enamel - an outer protective covering of the tooth crown. It is the hardest tissue in our body and performs mainly a protective function. The enamel is 97% consists of inorganic substances (mainly apatite crystals). On the organic matter and water accounts for only 3% of its composition. The thickness of the enamel in different areas ranging from 0.01 to 3.5 mm. Unfortunately, the enamel does not have the ability to regenerate, and therefore in violation of integrity, recovery is possible only by artificial means.

Diseases of the enamel

The most frequent diseases of tooth enamel can be attributed abnormal abrasion, wedge-shaped defects, cracks, hypoplasia, or hypoplasia of enamel, etc. Here are some of them.

Pathological abrasion - a process of increased enamel abrasion or cutting the chewing surfaces of teeth, leading to a decrease in height and the anatomical crown of the tooth. Reasons for such changes may be incorrect bite, work overload due to the loss of one tooth other improper design of prosthetic devices, household and professional use harmful effects. Increased abrasion can also occur in violation of the composition and strength of the enamel due to endocrine disorders, such as thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary gland.

There are three degrees of erasure:

- A slight abrasion of the enamel and the cutting edge of the hills;
- Exposure of dentin, enamel abrasion due to the cutting edge, and hills;
- Abrasion of enamel and dentin to the level of the tooth cavity.

The basis of treatment for abnormal abrasion orthopedic up actions: restoring the bite, good manufacturing artificial limbs, etc. In the absence of reasons for increased abrasion ustarneniya cosmetic treatment does not give lasting results.

Wedge-shaped defect - A wedge-shaped damage to the enamel, which is usually located in the cervical area of the tooth, is more common in middle-aged and elderly. In the early stages of development of wedge-shaped defects appear as surface scratches, cracks or gaps that can be seen only through a magnifying glass. Then they expand and take the form of a wedge. In this case the defect preserves straight edges and a solid bottom.

There are several theories of wedge-shaped defect. The most popular is the mechanical theory that damage to the enamel of the tooth due to microbending in the neck under the influence of mechanical loading. Typically, the wedge-shaped defects occur in people with malocclusion. In this situation, inharmonious interdigitation causes uneven mechanical load on the teeth, some teeth are processed, while others do not perform their functions. The result is cracking of the enamel and subsequent husking with the formation of defect V-shaped.

Treatment of wedge-shaped defects can be divided into orthopedic measures to normalize occlusion and prevention of further disease progression, and treatment of the existing defects of enamel. To restore the enamel of arious drugs used applications (paints, ointments, remineralized solutions, etc.), filling a variety of materials (glass ionomer, compomer, and flowable composites universal), in posing the veneers, and other methods.


Prevention of diseases of the enamel are orthopedic measures (bite correction), competent oral hygiene and a balanced diet with adequate calcium in the diet and vitamin D.