How to grow bone?Bone is living tissue that throughout life partly dying, and new continues to grow. Thus, in the body the old bone is constantly replaced by new ones. In a healthy person bones remain strong, as the number of new tissue formed is always greater than the number dying.
Bones contain the protein collagen and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, which make collagen, a dense and hard. To the bones remain strong, the body needs enough calcium and other minerals, as well as a certain level of estrogen in women and testosterone in men.
The body requires vitamin D, which helps to absorb calcium from food and incorporate it into the bone. Besides all the above, physical activity also helps bones stay strong.
Why do bones become fragile?Up to 30 years old bone is actively growing and becoming more dense. At the age of 40 years, the growth process is slowed down, and gradually become less strong bones.
In women after menopause, the ovaries stop producing eggs and estrogen levels fall. Gradually, the estrogen level begins to affect the structure of bone tissue, it becomes more cellular, weak and fragile. In men, the same is due to a decrease in testosterone levels.
Am I at risk for osteoporosis?For some people, the likelihood of osteoporosis is higher than that of others. The following are factors that increase the risk of osteoporosis. The more factors from the list apply to you, the more you discuss the problem of osteoporosis with your doctor.
- Female sex
- Frequent fractures
- Having a family history of osteoporosis
- Age 50 years and older
- Women after menopause
- Removal of the ovaries or menopause before the age of 45 years
- Asthenic physique
- Low content of calcium in your diet at least three dairy products a day (choose dairy products with a low-fat
- Increased use of alcohol (more than three standard drinks per day)
- Less than 30 minutes outdoors each day
- Less than 30 minutes of exercise every day
- Prolonged use of certain medications (eg, glucocorticosteroids) or anticonvulsants.
The last six risk factors you can control. Please be aware that osteoporosis is a disease in which prevention is much more effective treatment. It is better to change your lifestyle now to prevent osteoporosis in old age.
How can a doctor help?Your doctor can assess the risk of osteoporosis by examining your medical history and learn about your lifestyle. The physical manifestations of bone fragility include: fractures (mostly radial, femoral neck and vertebrae), a decrease of growth, curvature of the spine and the appearance of a hump. Your doctor may ask you to hold X-ray bone densitometry, or, in other words, the measurement of bone density.
What can I do with osteoporosis?If you have fragile bones, there are some practical steps you can take, in consultation with your doctor. In each case, they depend on your age, sex, medical history and the degree of reduction in bone density. These measures will help you avoid fractures and maintain the quality of life. Unfortunately, if you have had one fracture associated with osteoporosis, it is very likely that there will be other crises.
Choosing the right exercise, such as regular walking and walking on stairs, can help make bones denser. Dosage is recommended to start loading after consulting your doctor. Quitting smoking and reducing the number of alcohol consumed will also help prevent further bone loss.
To prevent fractures in everyday life:
- Be careful and alert for any movement and physical exertion
- Try to reduce the likelihood of falling: do not wear shoes or unstable slippery soled shoes (especially in winter), lay a special floor mats in the bathroom, allowing no slips on wet floors, always hold the handrail and railing
- Be careful on stairs and escalators
- Be careful when bending and lifting weights
- If necessary, use a cane
- If you fall before you get up, make sure you have no injuries
- If you have fallen, even in good health, contact your doctor may first be broken painless and invisible
Treatment of osteoporosisThere are no drugs, completely curing osteoporosis, but there are medications that can increase bone density and reduce fracture risk. Any treatment appoint a doctor. In osteoporosis the following groups of drugs used.
- Calcium supplementation (intake of calcium in osteoporosis is usually 1,000 mg per day) slows bone loss, but can not completely stop it (reducing the amount of calcium in the bones is normal for the elderly). A glass of milk (250 ml) contains about 300 milligrams of calcium. Many people prefer to take calcium tablets than 3-4 times a day to eat dairy products.
- Vitamin D (calciferol) compensates for the deficiency of natural vitamin D, which is often in the elderly, few have been on the sun. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and build it into the bone.
- Calcitriol is also a form of vitamin D, which helps the body absorb calcium and use it to build new bone. The use of preparations containing calcitriol require regular medical monitoring, as calcitriol may be too much to raise the level of calcium.
- Bisphosphonates - these are special drugs that increase bone density and reduce fracture risk. Today it is the most common drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis. It is important to take the medication exactly as directed and follow all recommendations.
- Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a long-term treatment of osteoporosis for women with low levels of estrogen (usually associated with menopause). HRT increases bone density and reduces fracture risk. But the use of HRT drugs increases risk of blood clots, breast cancer and uterine cancer, as well as increases the likelihood of strokes and heart attacks, especially in older postmenopausal women. The decision on the appointment of HRT after the doctor takes a thorough assessment of the proposed use and the likely risk of side effects.
- In men with low testosterone levels also apply testosterone replacement therapy.