OverviewPneumonia - an inflammation of the lung tissue of an infectious origin. Pneumonia can cause bacteria, viruses, fungi and unicellular. Depending on the causative agent of change and symptoms and radiological picture and tactics of therapy. Pneumonia can be a one-sided, if only hit one lung, and bilateral. There are focal, segmental, fractional and total pneumonia.
The causes of the diseaseThe most common bacterial pneumonia. Before the invention of antibiotics from a die of pneumonia every year hundreds of people. Currently, bacterial pneumonia respond well to treatment, and a list of antibacterial drugs is constantly increasing.
Viral pneumonia can be caused by a virus of influenza, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia, etc. Such flows are usually very difficult and often complicated by the addition of a bacterial infection.
Fungal pneumonia occurs in patients with weakened immune systems (for immunodeficiency, cancer, etc).
There are community-acquired pneumonia and hospital. This separation is associated with the presence of a specific hospital bacterial flora, which, if prolonged stay in hospital in debilitated patients may condition the development of pneumonia.
In addition, the release of aspiration pneumonia. This is a special type of pneumonia that develops in the lungs after inhalation of a foreign material (vomit when unconscious, amniotic fluid in the newborn during birth, etc).
Symptoms"Typical" pneumonia, characterized by a sharp rise in temperature, cough with copious purulent sputum, shortness of breath and sometimes chest pain. Chest pain, usually associated with involvement in the pathological process of the pleura.
"Atypical" pneumonia is characterized by gradual onset, dry, nonproductive cough, the clinical picture is dominated by minor symptoms of headache, myalgia, pain, sore throat, weakness and malaise with minimal changes on chest radiographs. This type of pneumonia caused atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Pneumocystis carinii, and viruses, etc.
DiagnosisSuspected pneumonia can develop with prolonged cold, long-term increase in temperature with marked weakness, cough and chest pain. In the presence of these symptoms need to contact your doctor.
In some cases, a doctor can make a diagnosis is based on auscultation. However, the main method for diagnosing pneumonia is chest radiography. Other surveys include the mandatory general and biochemical blood tests. Even if the patient did not require hospitalization, these surveys should be carried out for accurate diagnosis and treatment purposes.
In the hospital also conduct microscopic examination of sputum and culture, urinalysis, blood test for antibodies to various infectious agents that can cause disease.
TreatmentPneumonia is a serious disease which, if inadequate treatment can lead to serious complications and a prolonged duration. That is why the fulfillment of all the doctor's recommendations in full is the key to successful treatment. The decision on the need for hospitalization in the hospital the doctor takes, depending on the patient's age and the severity of the condition. In most cases, adults can be treated at home. However, remember that chest x-ray before and after treatment, as well as the implementation of full blood count are necessary.
The basis of treatment of pneumonia constitute the antibiotics that are prescribed depending on the intended agent and the severity of the patient. Take antibiotics exactly as many days as recommended by your doctor (even if your condition has improved, and the temperature was asleep).
When treatment failure within 3 days of antibiotic producing replacement. They are also used drugs that enhance the bronchi and mucolytics. In the hospital with severe infusion therapy can be carried out, inhalation of oxygen, chest compressions to improve the drainage function.