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Otitis Media

General

Middle ear - small space between the outer and inner ear comprises three small bones (malleus, incus and stapes), which provide the ability to hear.

The air pressure is kept constant through the auditory or eustachian tube that extends from the nasal cavity behind. When bacteria or viruses are introduced into the middle ear, the result is inflammation and fluid accumulation, which is a criterion of otitis media.

Inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media) is the most common disease of childhood, half the children the disease is observed for at least 1 times.

Reasons

Secretory otitis media occurs when the liquid formed as a result of a cold or an allergic reaction penetrates into the middle ear through the eustachian tube.

Acute serous otitis media develops as a result of bacterial or viral infection with an additional form of liquid.

Acute purulent otitis media caused by the accumulation of pus to bacterial infections and can lead to rupture of the eardrum. Chronic otitis media is caused by the presence of long untreated bacterial infection, infected adenoids or pathology in the Eustachian tube.

The symptoms of otitis media

Sharp shooting pain in the ear, which often indicates a long cry of a baby, and the baby t ear, the ear tissue stretched.

Minor bleeding or pus from the ear effusion. These symptoms are most likely break at the eardrum, which leads to a decrease of fluid pressure.
There is a rise in body temperature, the child is naughty, especially when accompanying a cold.

Nausea and vomiting, especially in young children.

Temporary hearing loss.

The feeling of fullness in the ear.

Complications of otitis media

Untreated infections of the middle ear sometimes lead to serious complications, such as mastoiditis, brain abscess or meningitis. Sudden hearing loss, headache, dizziness, colds, fever symptoms are severe. In such cases, you should immediately call a doctor, especially if the child has recently had a cold or have a sore throat.

Against the background of otitis media can be a temporary loss of hearing, but the hearing is usually restored to normal as soon as the liquid is drained and the inflammation subsides. Ear infections tend to recur, especially if the child has inflammation of the adenoids.
Untreated infection can lead to rupture of the eardrum and hearing loss.
Proper and timely treatment can prevent serious complications, such as mastoiditis. What you can do? Middle ear infection can be diagnosed by direct examination of the inner ear. Treatment usually comprises administering to penicillin or another antibiotic for 10 days or more. If the infection is not present, then the usual course of treatment includes vasoconstrictor (decongestants), and antihistamines to reduce the pressure of the fluid flowing through the eustachian tube.

What can a doctor?

Acute pain can be partially reduced by placing a piece of cotton ear heated.
Antihistamine and a vasoconstrictor (decongestants) tools are useful, but the need for their use should be determined by the doctor after examining the child.

Aspirin or paracetamol may reduce pain. It should be noted that the acetylsalicylic acid is contraindicated for children because can cause Reye's syndrome is rare and serious diseases of the brain and the liver.

If there are signs of inflammation of the middle ear should immediately consult a doctor. Sometimes the inflammation resolves on its own, but often requires treatment with antibiotics.
To avoid infections of the middle ear should be a full course of antibiotic treatment.

Preventative measures

The doctor examines the ear with an otoscope, and you can determine the status of the tympanic membrane and to establish the presence of inflammation. This study painlessly.
If antibiotic therapy against inflammation persists for a short time and there is the risk of rupture of the eardrum, the doctor can make a thin cut of the eardrum (myringotomy) to drain the pus. Through this incision pain caused by fluid pressure accumulated in the middle ear, disappears sectional usually heals quickly.

Some children develop chronic otitis media, which is dangerous for the state of the tympanic membrane. In such cases, to prevent perforation of the tympanic membrane can be introduced thin drain pipe.

If the source of recurrent infections are the adenoids, they are recommended to remove.