Age-related macular degeneration is the main cause of progressive, painless bilateral visual impairment in the elderly. In most cases, this disease under the retina in the macula (the area of the retina responsible for central vision) is the deposition of certain substances, thus creating pockets of detachment and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. In this disturbed function of photoreceptors and deteriorating eyesight. Patients complain of a sharp decline in vision, foggy vision, loss of parts. Currently there are no methods that can stop the development of age-related macular degeneration. Available in kits of vitamins (A, C, E) and trace elements (zinc, copper, selenium), but no data on their effectiveness. Other, rarer, form of age-related macular degeneration with the growth of blood vessels under the retina in the macula. These growths lift the retina, causing visual distortion and blurred vision. To treat this form of laser coagulation is used, but in many cases, the disease recurs.
Central serous choroidopathy develops mainly in men aged 20 to 50 years. When the disease is the accumulation under the retina vascular effusion, which leads to the appearance of small foci of retinal detachment, vision deteriorates. If the process involves the macula there are distortions of vision. In some cases, the treatment is effective laser photocoagulation.
Diabetic retinopathy is a frequent complication of diabetes and is associated with damage to small blood vessels feeding the retina. In most cases, these complications can be avoided by properly controlling blood sugar levels. Also, the prevention of diabetic retinal lesions is panretinalnaya laser photocoagulation.
Hereditary retinal dystrophy may occur in the first months of life or develop very slowly. Patients usually complain of a deterioration in twilight vision, discomfort when looking at the light. There may be flashes before your eyes (photopsia). Sometimes things can be distorted to see (metamorphopsia). Patients may experience difficulty in moving the ladder, especially in low light, across the street.
Pigment dystrophy is the collective name of the most common hereditary dystrophies. With this type of dystrophy is an uneven deposition of pigment in the periphery of the retina. These deposits are sometimes called "bone cells". Affects both eyes. Over time, the number of "bone cells" is increased, foci coalesce and spread over the retina and are close to the center of the fundus. The disease may begin in childhood, but sometimes the first signs appear only in the second half of life. The first complaint of patients is a violation of twilight vision (night blindness). Patients with poorly oriented at dusk and in low light. In the future, gradually narrowed visual field and reduced acuity. Vision gradually decreases to 40-60 years of blindness occurs. Treatment of pigmentary retinal dystrophy has not been developed. Prescribers improve nutrition and blood supply to the retina and optic nerve. Courses twice a year. Treatment is usually effective enough.