OverviewA cataract is a clouding of the lens - optical lens, which is located inside the eye. Most cataracts develop slowly as a result of aging. Cataract formation is faster in individuals with an eye injury after radiotherapy and glucocorticoid therapy for various inherited diseases, with diabetes mellitus.
The development of congenital cataract is possible if the mother during pregnancy, suffered or was a carrier of various infections (rubella, herpes, cytomegalovirus infection, measles, influenza and others), was exposed to radiation, taking strong medicine. However, the precise causes of this disease has not been clarified until now often in children with congenital cataracts perfectly healthy parents.
Cataracts can form in one or both eyes. More often than not if a cataract is the result of trauma cataract develops symmetrically on both sides. Cataracts can affect the whole of the lens or lens.
The reasonsThe main risk factor for cataracts is age. The first initial turbidity occur in the lens, usually after 40-50 years. In recent times, beginning at an earlier age. After 65 years, half the population there is a certain degree of opacity of the lens, although it may not mark the impairment.
Other risk factors for cataracts include: diabetes mellitus, the presence of cataracts in the family, trauma, or inflammatory diseases of the eye in the past, eye surgery, prolonged use of corticosteroids, prolonged sun exposure, prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation, smoking.
A common opinion among the people that cataracts can occur from strenuous visual work, such as reading or watching television, is a mistake.
Symptoms of cataractsDepending on the extent of damage the symptoms of cataracts include:
- Double vision in the eye, if the opposite eye is closed;
- Vagueness, the nebula image, defying spectacle correction;
- The emergence of short-sightedness;
- A sense of flare, flares, especially at night;
- Sensitivity to light, especially at night;
- The appearance of halos around lights;
- The deterioration of color vision.
ComplicationsIn the absence of long-term treatment may develop blindness.
What you can do?Diagnosis can only be an ophthalmologist. If you find yourself or your loved ones the symptoms of cataracts, as soon as possible to visit an ophthalmologist.
Unfortunately, the treatment of cataract surgery alone. Drug treatment is only slightly delayed clouding of the lens. Be careful not to fall into the trap of healers, talking about the conservative treatment and the refusal of the operation.
What can a doctor?Treatment of cataracts is made up of medical (conservative) and surgical. When medication appointed vitamin drops.
The main and almost the only method of treatment of cataract - surgical. You and your ophthalmologist should work together to determine when you should perform the operation.
Surgical treatment is based on replacing the darkened lens with an artificial. The most modern method in the whole world is considered to Ultrasonic phacoemulsification cataract. This operation was all over the world for a very mediocre and conducted on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia. Improving the view seen in 95% of patients. During the operation, the surgeon replaces the lens with cataracts in a plastic or silicone. Previously, the lens was removed along with the capsule. Currently, the practice extracapsular cataract extraction. This means that the lens capsule remains in place, and it put a new lens.
Prevention of cataractEarly diagnosis is very important. Examination by an ophthalmologist is recommended every 2-4 years to pass all persons 65 years and every 1-2 years to persons over 65 years.
Unfortunately, the universal means for the prevention and medical treatment of cataract is not. It is believed that quitting smoking and a balanced diet can reduce the risk of cataracts.