OverviewStomach cancer - a malignant tumor that develops from the gastric mucosa. Stomach cancer is the second highest incidence of other neoplasms, second lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. It is understood that there are a number of variants of this tumor. They differ in morphology, location, propensity to metastasize and the prognosis.
Causes of cancer of the stomachAt the moment, doctors do not have a clear position on the causes of stomach cancer, but we can say with great certainty about the risk factors of this disease. These include:
- Exposure to carcinogens (preservatives, nitrosamines, extremely rough, smoked, fat, Refried or spicy food);
- Infectious factor (Helicobacter Pylori infection, a favorite habitat of which is the stomach);
- Alcohol abuse and smoking;
- A hereditary factor.
For precancerous conditions include chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, pernicious anemia, a condition after gastrectomy, gastric polyps, etc. In recent years there has been reduction in the incidence of gastric cancer in developed countries. This is due primarily to the conduct of a healthy nutrition policy: improved conditions for food storage instead of smoking, salting and pickling, leading to an accumulation of carcinogens, often are used by freezing, increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables.
Symptoms of stomach cancerUnfortunately, the early stages of stomach cancer is almost never seen. The first symptoms are not specific to weakness, fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite. With the increase in tumor pain may appear in the upper abdomen, a feeling of fullness after eating, nausea, belching, vomiting. Often the tumor grows without symptoms until late stage. That is why early detection of gastric cancer need regular check-ups. The earlier cancer is diagnosed, the more effective it will be treated.
ComplicationsMetastasis of gastric cancer most often found in the liver and lungs. The presence of metastases indicates the fourth stage of the cancer process, when the cure is almost impossible to achieve. But thanks to modern methods of treatment can prolong the lives of patients for a sufficiently long period of time.
What you can do?Any malignancy should be treated in specialized clinics with knowledgeable oncologists. If you are diagnosed with stomach cancer, do not delay treatment at a convenient time. The earlier treatment is started, the better the result. During medical treatment, try to follow exactly the recommendations of the doctor. Send all their forces to fight the disease.
What can a doctor?The initial examination includes general and biochemical blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, fibrogastroduodenoscopy (gastroscopy, FEGDS) with biopsy of visible structures, as well as X-ray contrast study of esophagus and stomach. Perhaps the need to refine the diagnosis computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or laparoscopic examination.
Treatment of gastric cancer is complex. The main treatment is surgery. No other methods can not replace surgery. However, depending on the situation, the patient can be assigned to various combinations of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.