OverviewOvarian cancer ranks fifth in frequency of occurrence of malignancies in women. In Russia, the incidence of ovarian cancer is approximately 77 cases per 100,000 population. The average age when there is a cancer of the ovaries, is 61 years. The highest incidence of ovarian cancer observed in developed countries. Perhaps contribute to this particular food, some physical and chemical factors. Carcinogens that cause ovarian cancer, are not described.
The reasonsThe true causes of ovarian cancer are poorly understood. Risk factors include genetic predisposition (in the family of malignant ovarian disease), presence of endometrial cancer and breast cancer, as well as the absence of pregnancies throughout their lives.
Symptoms of ovarian cancerOvarian cancer occurs in the early stages are usually asymptomatic. At later stages, you may receive frequent urination, constipation, bloody vaginal discharge, discomfort and pain in the abdomen. Women of childbearing age may apply to your doctor about irregular menstruation.
What you can do?Ovarian cancer is most typical for postmenopausal women. It should be noted that many women at this time are no longer regularly visit a gynecologist, because they do not see this as a special need. This position is erroneous. Ovarian cancer is characterized specifically for this age period. Thus, for the timely diagnosis of women visit the gynecologist regularly throughout life. The next problem is the fear of confirming the diagnosis. After examination, the gynecologist sends the patient to additional research: fear of a positive response, a woman lay visiting specialists and analyzes all the more remote period, and the disease may progress in the meantime. And finally the last thing: after diagnosis, some women refuse to treat or delay it indefinitely, guided by the fact that "the children they did not give birth," and therefore it is possible and so to live. Ovarian cancer is a dangerous disease. Treatment will be the more effective the earlier they are started. If you are diagnosed with ovarian cancer, try as soon as possible to begin treatment and follow all doctors' recommendations.
What can a doctor?Ovarian cancer may be suspected gynecologist during a standard gynecological examination. Detection by palpation of the pathological formation of an indication for ultrasound (USG) pelvis. If you suspect that ovarian cancer is the primary goal of physicians to obtain a sample of tumor cells. Other way to make an accurate diagnosis is not. The peculiarity of ovarian cancer that quickly spread across the surface of the peritoneum: cancer cells can be found even in the liquid contained in the abdominal cavity. To do this, puncture can be performed through the posterior vaginal fornix or diagnostic laparoscopy.
Distant metastasis or spread of cancer to adjacent organs is much rarer. However, all patients with suspected ovarian cancer carried out X-ray examination of the stomach and intestines, as well as the study of breast cancer in order to exclude metastases. In order to clarify the distribution process can be computed and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal cavity. There are laboratory techniques that can provide additional information. Thus, the discovery of the blood marker CA 125 levels high with strong positive results of the study gives grounds to speak about the presence of tumor.
The main treatment is surgical. Depending on the extent of tumor surgery can be performed in a different volume. This material was mandatory to be sent for histological examination. If the tumor is significantly extended, first courses of chemotherapy treatment is carried out and only then make surgical intervention. After surgery and may require several courses of chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is used less frequently.