OverviewKidney cancer is 3% of malignant neoplasms in adults and is the most common form of kidney cancer in adults. Men are twice as likely to get sick women. Most cases occur in age from 39 to 70 years.
The causes of the diseaseThe cause of cancer kidney is not known. However, there are a number of risk factors for this disease:
- Smoking (heavy smokers the risk increased 2.3-fold);
- Urban lifestyle;
- Kidney cancer in relatives;
- Hereditary syndromes such as von Hippel-Lindau disease, etc.
Symptoms of kidney cancer- Blood in urine;
- A constant dull pain in the side of the abdomen;
- Loss of weight;
- The sudden appearance of a varicocele (varicose veins of the spermatic cord);
- The presence of swelling in the lumbar region, detectable by palpation;
- Deterioration of general condition, weakness, loss of appetite;
- Unwarranted increase in body temperature;
- Anemia and associated pale skin.
What you can do?Unfortunately, kidney cancer can be asymptomatic for a long time. Tumor formation is often detected by chance during a preventive examination. Need to undergo regular check-ups.
What can a doctor?Diagnosis of kidney cancer usually involves a general and biochemical blood tests, urine tests, ultrasound of the abdomen and kidneys, computer or magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal cavity, radioisotope scintigraphy. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the tumor is not always informative. For the detection of metastases may require additional methods of investigation.
Based on these results is the definition of tumor stage and treatment program is planned.
The surgical technique is essential in the treatment of kidney cancer. The most frequently performed radical nephrectomy, at which removed the entire kidney, adrenal gland and surrounding fat tissue and nearby lymph nodes. In the early stages, the small size of the tumor can be made partial kidney removal (resection). Such an operation can be carried out also in the bilateral kidney disease or with only one kidney.
Radiation and chemotherapy are rare, mainly as a palliative treatment methods, as their effectiveness in most cases low. In some cases, can be assigned to immunotherapy with interferon-alpha or interleukin-2. According to studies, about half of immunotherapy gives a positive result and 15% of patients increases the survival time.