OverviewCancer of the colon - a malignant disease, which may be localized in any part of the large intestine, consisting of the colon (part of the intestine, which empties through the small intestine) and rectum (terminal truncated portion of the large intestine).
The colon consists of ascending colon (bottom-up pass on the right side of the abdomen), transverse colon (overlaps with the small intestine and placed horizontally at the top of the abdomen), descending colon (located in the left abdomen and goes down from the top corner) and ends rectum.
The most common colon cancer occurs in the lowest part of the sigmoid colon and rectum.
After lung cancer death rate in second place. When suspicious entities conducting a colonoscopy, but for the diagnosis of colon cancer requires a biopsy.
Colon cancer often develops from an adenoma (benign tumor composed of glandular cells), which grows from the surface of the intestine into the lumen of the intestine. Adenoma size can range from subtle to a few centimeters in width. Cancer cells can grow into the intestine. The larger the adenoma, the more likely its content of cancer cells.
When a malignant tumor the size of a small asymptomatic possible for months or years.
The reasonsThe main reason for colon cancer is unknown. Some researchers believe that diet plays an important role. As a result, a number of studies suggest that people in the diet are not enough dietary fiber, fruits and vegetables, high in protein and fat (the nature of the food of the majority of the population of industrial cities), there is a high incidence of colon cancer. How inadequate nutrition contributes to cancer is not precisely determined, but scientists believe that this disease may be due to a violation of the digestion of fat and the amount of time required for bowel cleansing. People who abuse alcohol, especially beer and wine, also have an increased risk of Rectal cancer. The mechanism of its origin is also unknown.
Heredity may also play a role, since colon cancer is often noted in the patient's family history.
Risk factors for colon cancer include: guidance on family history, polyps in the colon, ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory bowel disease.
Symptoms of colon cancerChanging of the bowel, bleeding from the rectum, pain in lower abdomen, bloating, weight loss, anemia, changes in size or shape of feces.
A variety of growth and symptoms vary depending on the location of the tumor.
ComplicationsCancer of the large intestine dangerous disease. About a third of patients with the disease die. With early diagnosis of the disease in most cases, patients recover.
If a malignant tumor of the colon is not treated, it is the germination of other organs, leading to death.
What you can do?With early diagnosis and adequate treatment of rectal cancer respond well to treatment, so a doctor should be visited at any alarming symptoms of the disease.
What can a doctor?If the symptoms suggest the presence of colon cancer, the physician should conduct appropriate research. Need to do blood tests (to determine the presence of anemia, the definition of specific genetic markers, computed tomography, scan, barium enema X-ray examination and colonoscopy.
Small polyps can be removed for biopsy samples may be taken during the colonoscopy.
Colon cancer is treated surgically removing the tumor and part of the intestine above and below to ensure removal of all tumor cells.
Usually both ends of the colon are fused and then the intestine is functioning normally. In some cases, rectal cancer requires colostomy (removal of the colon to the surface outside the body). However, the new method, which is that part of the small intestine is used to form the rectum, reduces the need for colostomy.
Radiation therapy is used before or after surgery, especially in progressive cancer. All the more widely used chemotherapy after surgery, especially in stage III cancer, which increased as a result of malignant lymph nodes. Combined therapy, including post-surgical treatment of anticancer drugs, reduces the incidence of death in the third.
Preventive measures against colon cancerRecent studies have shown that eating mostly fruits, vegetables, grains can prevent colon cancer. Proper diet contains large amounts of dietary fiber, beta-carotene, vitamins A and C. There are vitamins that are antioxidants that prevent damage to the tissues of incompletely oxidized products (as a result of lipid peroxidation), which, according to some scholars, increase the risk of colon cancer.
To prevent colon cancer, it is necessary to limit the consumption of alcohol, reduce the consumption of foods high in protein and fat in the diet increased the content of dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates.
Early research and diagnostics can help to cure this disease. Everyone over the age of 50 years shall annually conduct studies on the presence of blood in the stool.
In addition, we recommend an annual rectal finger study in people over 40 years. Lyudam over 50 years, or colonoscopy is recommended proktosigmoidoskopiya 1 every 2-3 years.
If you find yourself at risk, you should see your doctor every year and conduct research with the goal of cancer of the colon.