OverviewCervix - the lower part of the uterus that connects her body to the vagina. Cervical cancer is a very common disease of women. In Russia, the frequency of occurrence is approximately 11 cases per 100 000 population. There are two peak age incidence of 35-39 years and 60-64 years.
Cancer of the cervix - this is one of the few cancers whose development can be prevented, because in most cases, it develops on the background of long-term pre-existing diseases. There are two main types of cervical cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In 80-90% of cases of cervical cancer are squamous cell carcinoma. The remaining 10-20% are adenocarcinomas.
The causes of the diseaseThe cause of any malignant disease is damage to the genetic material of cells, which occurs under the influence of various environmental factors. Among the major risk factors should be allocated viral infection (human papilloma virus and herpes). Long existing in the cervical cells, viruses, lead to mutations, which in turn are the basis for the emergence of cancer cells. There is evidence that cervical cancer contribute to the same p annee onset of sexual activity, promiscuity, personal injury, cervical childbirth, smoking.
By pre-cancerous diseases (diseases with a high probability of transformation into cancer) is dysplasia of the mucous membrane of the cervix.
Symptoms of cervical cancerIn cancer of the cervix early stages are marked discharge from the genitals, usually bleeding, especially after sexual intercourse. In later stages, possibly joining back pain and legs, weight loss, swelling of the legs, blood in urine.
Cervical cancer in early stages and precancerous lesions can clinically manifest itself, but rather easy to detect with preventive examinations.
DiagnosisDiagnosis of cervical cancer begins with a thorough general examination of the patient, and then conduct a pelvic exam with pap smears from the cervix (smear microscopic examination revealed altered cells). Upon detection of changed areas of the mucosa perform a biopsy (taking a piece of tissue for subsequent histological examination.) If, according to survey suspected cancer of the cervix, it is recommended to perform colposcopy (examination of the mucous membrane of the cervix and vagina using a special endoscope). Colposcopy identifies areas when viewed from the mucosal premalignant and malignant pathology, and a biopsy (taking a small piece of tissue for examination). Diagnostic tests may also be supplemented by pelvic ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
What you can do?As already mentioned, the main symptom of cervical cancer are intermenstrual bleeding from the vagina. If you notice these symptoms in yourself, try to apply as soon as possible to the gynecologist.
What will help the doctor?Step (prevalence) of the process is important in deciding on the method of treatment for cervical cancer. However, when choosing a treatment method also takes into account the location of the tumor on the cervix, the type of tumor (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma), presence of metastases, age, general condition and the desire to have children. Generally, treatment consists of surgical removal of tumor (sometimes together with the uterus), followed by chemo-and radiotherapy.
Prevention of the cervical cancerPrevention of cervical cancer is through regular annual checkups by a gynecologist with a smear of the cervix. Follow the instructions for your gynecologist in the case of pre-cancerous disease or infection with human papilloma virus.
For the prevention of cervical cancer at the present stage of development of medicine may also include vaccination against human papilloma virus. Despite the fact that the holding of these vaccinations is just beginning to be widely used in Russia, the vaccine has worked well in the world. Vaccination should be performed in women aged 11 to 26 years (before the start of sexual activity, when there was a virus infection).