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Cancer of the Rectum

Overview

Rectal cancer is about 4-5% of all cancers. This is the most frequent localization of cancer in the human gut. Peak detection of colorectal cancer between the ages of 40-60 years, but it can also occur at younger ages.

Causes

By pre-cancerous colon diseases include colorectal polyps (adenomatous, villous), diffuse polyposis (familial, hereditary), chronic proctitis, proctosigmoiditis, ulcerative colitis, anorectal fissures, ulcers and fistulas.
Polyps of the rectum are a group of obligate precancerous diseases with a high probability of transformation to cancer.

Symptoms of colon cancer

Clinical manifestations of colon cancer depend on stage of disease, the nature of tumor growth and the level of its location. The most common symptoms include the following:

- Bleeding (the intensity of intestinal bleeding is usually minor and often they occur in the form of a small admixture of red blood in stool);
- Constipation, fecal incontinence and gas, bloating, frequent false urge to defecate);
- Pain in the rectum;
- Weight loss, pale skin);
- A violation of well-being of patients (general weakness, fatigue);
- Anemia (decreased hemoglobin in the blood caused by cancer of the rectum, as a rule, intestinal bleeding).

In the later stages of the disease may occur in patients with intestinal obstruction, manifested cramping abdominal pain, delayed gas and stool, vomiting.

Diagnosis of colorectal cancer

If you suspect that surround the formation of colon doctor will anoscopy (examination of the inner surface of the anal canal using a special tool Once this introduced through the anus) and digital rectal study. Both of these methods are simple and informative.

Further tactics include an x-ray diagnosis of abdominal and pelvic ultrasound, as well as sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (an endoscopic examination to combine with the intestinal biopsy of a pathological formation).

From laboratory studies the patient is prescribed fecal occult blood test, general and biochemical blood tests, etc.

Complications

- Germination of the tumor to adjacent organs and the pelvic wall;
- Purulent-inflammatory processes in the tumor (purulent abscess, abscess tissue pelvic and retroperitoneal);
- Bleeding from the rectum;
- Obstructive ileus.

Cancers of the rectum may metastasize to the lymph and blood vessels. The most commonly affects the lymph nodes in the abdomen and pelvis. In more rare cases there is distant metastasis, such as the liver.

What you can do?

If you suspect yourself or someone with colon cancer, try as soon as possible to see a doctor. He will appoint the necessary diagnostic procedures and in the case of confirmation of the diagnosis the doctor will refer you to an oncologist.

If you have a family predisposition to colon polyps or cancer of the rectum, you should take preventive examinations at least once a year.

What can a doctor?

For the treatment of colorectal cancer according to disease stage and tumor localization surgical treatment, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Prophylaxis

Patients at risk (suffering from colon polyps, chronic inflammatory processes in the rectum, anorectal fissures, etc.) are subject to patient care from surgeons proctologists to inspections at least once a year. Such patients with clinical examination performed fecal occult blood rectosigmoscopy, colonoscopy or barium enema.