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Breast Cancer

Overview

Breast cancer ranks first among all malignancies in women. According to statistics, the incidence of malignant neoplasms of the Russian population of breast cancer over the past 15 years has increased by more than 2 times. It is known that the incidence of women living in large cities and industrial areas, is higher than residents of rural areas.

cancer of the mammary glands occurs in men. Many men are not even aware of the possibility of such a disease they have. That's why they did not immediately turn to doctors, which leads to late diagnosis, delays in beginning treatment and poor therapeutic outcome.

Risk factors for breast cancer in women include malignant tumors in family history (especially the presence of breast cancer in mother or grandmother), later onset of menstruation in girls, the lack of birth or later first births, abandonment of breast-feeding, prolonged lack of sex life , diseases of the reproductive system, leading to hormonal disturbances. As it turns out, are also important diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and arteriosclerosis, etc.

The reasons

Breast cancer occurs as a result of active uncontrolled division of abnormal cancer cells. Without treatment, the tumor is growing rapidly in size, can grow into the skin, muscles and rib cage. The lymph vessels cancer cells reach lymph nodes in the next. From the bloodstream, they spread throughout the body, giving rise to new tumors - metastasis. The most common breast cancer metastasizes to the lungs, liver, bone, and brain. The defeat of these bodies, as well as the disintegration of the tumor and leads to death.
Breast cancer can develop on the background of precancerous diseases, which include breast and fibroadenoma.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer

- A painless, firm formation in the interior of the breast,
- Change the shape and form of breast cancer,
- Shrinkage or retraction of the skin of the breast,
- Discomfort or unusual pain in one breast,
- Order or swelling in the nipple, retraction of his,
- Bleeding from the nipple,
- Swollen lymph nodes under the arm of the party.

Due to the lack of annual medical examination, doctors can not constantly monitor the health of the population. Therefore, most often refers to the oncologist the woman, who noticed the tumor.

The main method for early detection of breast cancer is x-ray mammography. Regular conduct of this study can detect tumors at an early stage.

Despite the fact that breasts are available for the survey, about half of the patients coming to hospitals with the third and fourth stages of the disease. Often this is due to women's lack of self-examination skills, as well as long-term treatment with home remedies for various seals found in the mammary gland. Women are afraid to go to the doctor and find out the truth. This leads to late diagnosis and worse results in the treatment.

Needed to confirm the diagnosis mammography, breast ultrasound, and biopsy (taking a piece of breast tissue for histological examination). To identify possible metastases woman referred for bone scintigraphy (radioisotope study), ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, lung X-rays, CT scans, etc. Depending on the results of the survey may need additional diagnostic methods.

Complications

Metastasis can occur through the lymphatic and blood vessels. Lymphogenous metastases occur in lymph nodes: anterior thoracic, axillary, sub-and supraclavicular, okologrudinnoy. Hematogenous metastases are found more frequently in the bones, lungs, liver, and kidneys. When breast cancer is often found the so-called latent or dormant metastases that may develop in 7-10 years (described in twenty years) after radical resection of primary tumor.

What you can do?

If you notice any changes in the state of the mammary glands, as soon as possible, try to turn to mammologist. Do not be afraid of the survey. It is much more dangerous to procrastinate and wait until the display disappears, or to self-medicate. Lost time in such a situation is dangerous tumor invasion into deeper layers of the chest wall and metastasis.

What can a doctor?

Treatment of breast cancer should be comprehensive. This approach involves the use of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and radiation therapy. Choice of treatment depends on many factors, the structure of the tumor, its growth rate, presence of metastases, the patient's age, ovarian function, etc. Only a qualified doctor will be able to choose the right treatment plan. With early diagnosis of breast cancer treatment can make a full recovery and return to normal life. Modern methods of plastic surgery can achieve good cosmetic results.

Preventive measures

The basis for the prevention of breast cancer in women is breast self-examination and regular visits mammologist, a gynecologist and a therapist. Only in the case of a regular and probing examination of mammary glands, the woman will be able to notice condensation that appears in the breast - the main and often the only sign of breast cancer. In addition, a woman once a year must pass preventive inspection at mammologist and gynecologist, to do ultrasound of the breast and mammography.