OverviewBladder cancer is about 5% of all malignant neoplasms. Men get sick several times more often than women. The peak incidence occurs between the ages of 50 to 80 years. cancer of the bladder is one of the few cancers with a fairly well-known factors in carcinogenesis. Industrial carcinogens cause 20% of cases. Some studies indicate an increased risk of tridtsatikratnoe for workers in the production of aniline dyes.
The causes of the diseaseRisk factors for bladder cancer include:
- Contact with aniline dyes, and with the components of the synthesis of aniline dyes;
- Work in the skin, rubber, lkaokrasochnoy industry;
- The use of certain drugs (eg cyclophosphamide).
Symptoms of bladder cancerThe danger of this disease is virtually complete absence of any clinical manifestations of cancer in the early stages of the process, when treatment is most effective.
The first complaint in 90% of the cases is the detection of blood in the urine (hematuria). 25% of patients experiencing symptoms of irritation of the bladder, such as obstructed, frequent, painful urination, false urge to urinate. These symptoms resemble the feeling of prostatitis, cystitis or urethritis. They arise in large tumors and tumors located at the outlet of the bladder. In addition, bladder cancer may manifest pain in the pelvis and lateral abdomen.
What you can do?If you find yourself or someone else listed symptoms, immediately try to contact your physician. If you suspect that you will be referred to a cancer doctor oncologist. In this case, try not to lose a single day. Perform designated diagnostic procedures as quickly as possible. Do not put off visits to doctors. Do not be afraid of the diagnosis. The earlier treatment begins the better the results.
What can make a doctor?For diagnosis necessary to carry out various studies:
- Ultrasound pelvic floor;
- Urography (shown in all cases of unexplained hematuria, as well as to prevent destruction of the upper urinary tract);
- Urine cytology;
- Cystoscopy (a key method in the diagnosis of bladder cancer involves a biopsy of the mucous membrane areas);
- Determination of tumor marker s in serum.
For the detection of metastases doctor may order further investigation.
The main role in choosing the treatment strategy is the stage of cancer. Treatment of bladder cancer are usually complex and involves both surgical and medical and radiation techniques.
At an early stage is possible to use sections of transurethral resection of the bladder mucosa that is affected by the cancer process, followed by coagulation of the formed ulcers. In this treatment is less traumatic and more effective, also remains a function of the bladder. Upon germination of the tumor in the deeper layers may require cystectomy (bladder removal). For urinary diversion after cystectomy was the most common plastic (create) an artificial bladder from the colon.
Radiation and drug therapy are treated as additions to the surgical method and used for the prevention of recurrence of disease. Often, intravesical chemotherapy is feasible also in the early stages of the disease, with chemotherapy after surgery it is advisable to carry out.
Prognosis depends on the stage of the process and the nature of the treatment.
ProphylaxisPrevention of bladder cancer consists of measures to eliminate occupational hazards of chemical production (with the exception of workers in direct contact with chemicals, as well as regular clinical examination). Smokers recommend a complete cessation of smoking.
For preventative measures include the timely treatment of inflammatory diseases of the urinary bladder and papillomatosis.
Early diagnosis involves the passage of regular preventive examinations and timely access to a doctor when it detects hematuria and symptoms of irritation of the bladder.