Parkinson's disease - a syndrome of progressive destruction of the nervous system, manifested by reduction in general motor activity, slowness of movement (bradykinesia), tremor, increased muscle tone.
There are Parkinson's disease - primary, or idiopathic parkinsonism, secondary parkinsonism (vascular, drug, post-traumatic, postencephalitic, etc.) and Parkinson's syndrome and hereditary degenerative diseases of the CNS.
The concept of "parkinsonism" refers to any syndrome in which there are characteristic of Parkinson's disease neurological disorders.
The average age of onset of PD - 55 years. At the same time 10% of patients the disease makes its debut at the young age of 40. In this case, the disease is called juvenile parkinsonism.
The disease occurs in children and adolescents, in this case, doctors speak of juvenile parkinsonism Hunt, which is characterized by a slow current and classic symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
The incidence of Parkinson's disease does not depend on sex (disease occurs with equal frequency in both women and men), race, social status and place of residence.
In the later stages of the disease quality of life is significantly reduced. For gross violations of patients ingesting rapidly lose weight. In cases of prolonged immobility caused by the death of patients with respiratory disorders and acceding bed sores.
The reasons that lead to Parkinson's diseaseOrigin of Parkinson's disease remains to be investigated, however as the cause of the disease is considered a combination of several factors:
- heredity (genetic predisposition);
- Some toxins and substances.
Other causes of Parkinson's disease include:
- Viral infections that lead to Parkinson postencephalitic;
- Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels;
- Heavy and repeated head injuries.
Manifestations of Parkinson's diseaseParkinson's disease, despite its relatively slow development, refers to a progressive disease, and the bright display can indicate nothing of the later stages, because the primary form of latency is probably over.
Total release of up to 8 stages of Parkinson's disease with progressive clinical manifestations, from the absence of overt symptoms until the patient immobilization for assessment of the specific organism used a specially designed scale.
Among the symptoms of the disease is called:
- Slow movements of the limbs;v - Difficulty or loss of facial activity;
- Increase in muscle tone;
- The pain of varying intensity;
- A specific tremor (shaking), which decreases or completely disappears under the influence;
- Difficulty or loss of control of posture (frequent falling, gait changes, etc.);
- Speech changes;
- Bladder dysfunction;
- Chronic depression.
A patient suffering from even the initial form of the disease needs to be a professional inspection and recommendation of the individual course of treatment, because otherwise we can go about the serious consequences.
There is a kind of flexion posture: head and body bent forward, arms bent in, often close to the body, legs bent at the knee joints.
The gait is characterized by small shuffling steps. Sometimes it may come sooner rather complete immobility. Often there is a tendency to run ahead involuntary, if the patient push forward, he runs to keep from falling, as it were "catching up with its center of gravity." It is a quiet, monotonous, without modulation, with a tendency to decay at the end of phrases. Many patients complain of difficulty in rising from the bed and turning in bed during the night, which significantly violates not only the quality of nighttime sleep, but also as a consequence, the usefulness of daytime wakefulness.
What can you do?The first thing to remember that a timely and correct treatment is chosen, as a rule, remains for many years to your professional and consumer activity, reducing all the manifestations of the disease.
What can a doctor do?Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is based entirely on clinical observations, as in this disease there is no specific diagnostic tests.
Medications prescribed for Parkinson's disease, fail to be cured of Parkinson's disease, but can relieve her symptoms. As a rule, treatment should be scheduled for the rest of the patient's life to avoid the resumption of symptoms.
The choice and selection of drug dosage for each patient carries only a specialist neurologist or psychiatrist! The patient and his relatives should be aware that antiparkinsonian drugs are contra-indications and side effects are undesirable, and only a doctor can determine the appropriate treatment.