OverviewSprains is a rupture of fiber bundles of the joint. Depending on the intensity of the traumatic force may be a partial violation of the integrity of the individual fibers, the gap with a complete break from the bunch with garnetting ends and peel, if torn ligament at the site of attachment to the bone. Sometimes, along with a bunch of detached bone fragment - tear fracture. The children in the analogous situation with adults often comes broken bones, and ligaments remain intact. In most cases there is rupture of individual fibers in the ligament from the movement in the joint, exceeding its physiological limits. The area around the damaged joint is swollen and sore, especially when much movement. Sprains occur most frequently in the ankle and knee, finger joints, wrists. In some cases, the offset bone fracture or fracture is mistaken for a severe sprain. Therefore, if in doubt should consult your doctor to accurate diagnosis and receive appropriate treatment.
Causes of sprainsStrong stretching or tearing ligaments during a sharp jerk (for example, dislocation of the ankle) or severely damaged in the fall or slip.
Symptoms of a sprain- Pain in joints;
- Swelling and redness;
- Restriction of movement or failure due to severe pain;
- In severe cases, deformity of the joint.
Complications- Damage to the tendons (tough fibrous structure that connects muscles to bones), or muscles;
- Cracks or fractures;
- With recurrent sprains weakened joint.
First aid for sprainsAfter the injury as soon as possible put on the damaged joint with an ice pack to reduce swelling and pain. Wrap the joint with an elastic bandage.
Lift the damaged joint above heart level, with swelling and pain subside wane. Take regular painkillers.
When the swelling subsides, you can start to do the bath with warm water.
When will the pain start to gently knead the joints (rotate, move from side to side). But do not load it until there is pain and swelling. Healing takes 6 weeks to 6 months. Active movement in the joint until recovery often leads to repeated stretching.
Consult your doctor if:
- You expect the displacement of bone or fracture;
- If the pain and swelling are kept longer than 3 days, in spite of all measures;
- If there is a deformation of the joint, or discoloration of the skin over it.
What can a doctor?Doctor may prescribe an X-ray of the joint to detect the displacement of bone or a fracture, correctly fix the joint to ensure the immobility of the joint for a period of healing of injuries. To restore the badly torn ligament or tendon surgery is carried out.
Preventive measuresFor sports wear suitable and comfortable clothing (eg, low rubber shoes for basketball).
Avoid wearing shoes with high heels.
Keep your feet when walking on rough or chipped surfaces.
Maintain a healthy weight. Excess weight causes increased load on the joints.
Take regular exercise, it strengthens the ligaments and muscles.