OverviewHead injury - is any damage to the head and skull. These injuries can be very different in severity from a small contusion to severe brain damage. Head injury may be closed or penetrating. The reason for the closed head injury is usually dull thud of an object or surface. Concussion is a closed injury, affecting the brain. In many cases, a head injury may be less noticeable, but often these patients need special care and treatment.
The reasons- Accidents (traffic accidents, domestic accidents, industrial accidents, etc.);
- The fall;
- Assault, fighting, physical abuse.
SymptomsIf, after the trauma patient just a little bruise or hematoma, which causes a little discomfort, the problem can be handled independently.
It should seek medical help when a wound longer than 10 minutes, with severe headache and neck pain, with increasing headache and nausea. You should immediately call an ambulance if blood or clear fluid flowing from the nose and ears, with a body temperature above 38 degrees, with damage to neck and back, in convulsions, confusion, impaired ability to walk, do not focus sight, speech difficulty, blurred vision, or when pupils of different sizes, difficulty breathing, loss of consciousness.
ComplicationsAs a result of serious head injury may develop:
- Changes in personality;
- Nervous disorders;
- Speech disorders;
- Impaired memory, learning ability and other intellectual activities (cognitive impairment);
- Loss of vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste;
First aid for head injuriesApply ice to a cone or a bruise to reduce swelling.
Do not take any medication before you consult a doctor.
Within 24 hours, move as little as possible.
Make sure that the victim was conscious and adequate.
Ask the name, age and address of the victim, to check whether there is memory loss.
Immediately call an ambulance if the victim does not stop the bleeding, vomits, he has a bad headache, or confusion occurs. Clean and bandage the wound.
What can a doctor?The physician should rule out the possibility of serious damage. Make an X-ray of the cervical vertebrae and the bones of the skull (head). If in doubt do a CT scan to confirm the absence of internal bleeding and swelling. Hospitalization is recommended, especially if you lose consciousness. Provide treatment for trauma and its complications.
Preventive measuresAlways wear a helmet when riding a motorcycle and bicycle.
Make sure children play in a safe place.
Make sure that children of all ages were under adult supervision.
Observe the rules of the road.
Do not make sudden unpredictable movements on the road.
Do not ride a bicycle at night.
Use appropriate protective equipment (especially helmets for motorcycle and bicycle and seat belt in the car).
Do not operate a vehicle while intoxicated and did not get in your car, the driver that you think are not sober.
Use a special children's car seat when driving with the child.