Cut – it is skin damage caused by sharp objects. Small cuts only hurt the skin and fatty tissue just under the skin, they usually disappear on their own. More serious cuts (incised wounds) can affect the muscles, tendons, blood vessels, ligaments and nerves. Such injuries should be examined by a doctor.
Scratches and abrasions are superficial damage to one or more layers of the skin. Scratches and scrapes usually affect the uppermost layer. Of these, the blood can go, but they never become gaping. Usually, scratches and abrasions occur when falling into the hands, knees and elbows. Because they often hurt a lot of nerve endings, they are very painful. Usually, scratches and abrasions quickly pass, but in case of infection should seek medical advice. Although the scratches and abrasions are usually very minor injuries and they do not pay much attention, they must be washed and disinfected to prevent the occurrence of infection and scarring. The infection can get in any damage to the skin, even the lightest scratch.
Usually, when cuts and abrasions occur a little bleeding, which stopped after 10 minutes. With the development of bleeding, which can not be stopped for 20 minutes, or a cut was made the subject of dirty (rusty knife, shovel, etc.) and the wound is a foreign matter (dirt, debris), you must consult a doctor. You should also seek medical advice if there is a need for a tetanus toxoid (if the last time it was introduced more than 10 years ago), with deep or long cuts, cuts on his face, where it is impossible to connect the wound with plaster or there is a yawning wound. Deep cuts in the joints, hands, face, neck, chest or any other sites where you do not admit of a scar, cut a small child, especially if he wins the blindfold, signs of infection (redness, swelling and pain around the wound), numbness of the damaged The site also require a medical examination. You must call an ambulance if there is uncontrolled bleeding, inability to move normally and wiggle your fingers and toes, the symptoms of shock.
– Bleeding in case of damage of large vessels;
– Wound infection, which manifests itself as inflammation, fever, severe pain and formation of pus;
– Tetanus. This is a disease of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) caused by a bacterial infection that has fallen into the wound.
First aid for cuts, wounds and abrasions
Wound should be washed with a weak antiseptic solution, apply a pressure bandage.
In marked bleeding or blood pulsation should immediately seek medical help.
Make sure that the wound is not dirt, debris or other foreign bodies.
Consult your doctor if you can not wash themselves and clean the wound from foreign bodies.
Bandage wound yourself, using a sterile bandage or cloth. In shallow cuts, you can use antibacterial adhesive.
Bandage crosswise, not lengthwise, to connect the edges of the wound and speed healing.
Moist wounds heal more quickly after they are smaller scars than dry wounds. Crust formed on dry wounds, prevents the regeneration of cells of the epidermis (superficial layer of skin).
What can a doctor?
Close a gaping wound, stitches or a special bandage, clean the wound. Assess the depth of damage, if necessary, hospitalization for medical care (when damaged blood vessels, tendons and nerves).
Prescribe antibiotics for bacterial infection. Enter tetanus toxoid if needed.