OverviewBurn - is damage to the skin, some tissues, muscles and bones, associated with exposure to the skin of fire, electricity or chemicals. The longer the contact continued, the stronger will burn. Burns can also be due to exposure to hot steam or liquid.
There are several degrees of burns, depending on the severity of damage to the skin and tissues:
First degree burns - it is a superficial skin damage. Redness, dryness, and sometimes swelling of the skin. These burns can be painful, but are fast enough, gradually peeled. First-degree burns are usually obtained from small sunburn or from contact with boiling liquid or hot vapor.
Second degree burns affect the top two layers of the skin. The skin becomes red, swollen, often appear blisters and bubbles. The pain from such burns can be very strong. If the damage is more than half the area of the body does not exclude death. If the burn covers more than 6 square inches, or a lot of blisters on the skin or a burn affects the hands, face or groin area, contact your doctor.
Third degree burns it is a deep skin damage, it is also possible damage to the tissues, muscles, nerves, fat, and even bones. The skin may be red, white, yellow and black. These burns can be extremely difficult and painful. Burned skin can secrete large amounts of fluid. In all three degree burns always need medical care. 3 degrees of burn scars may remain and scars.
The reasonsYou can handle the problem yourself, if you scorch affecting only the uppermost layer of the skin and there is severe pain.
It is recommended to consult a doctor if you have 1-2 degree burns over an area of ??5 cm, burns to the groin or buttocks. Required immediate hospitalization for burns 1 and 2 degrees, which occupy more than 10% of the body, with 3 degrees of burns, burns, accompanied by smoke inhalation, severe burns of the face and neck.
Chemical burns: contact the doctor if you have blisters, severe edema. The chemical eye burns require immediate hospitalization.
SymptomsContact with hot surfaces and objects, as well as contact with certain hazardous chemicals, hot steam, boiling liquids and electrical shock.
Complications- Shock (pallor, shortness of breath, cold sweats, drowsiness, rapid pulse, loss of consciousness) associated with the loss of fluid.
- A bacterial infection.
- The internal damage caused by the effects of electric current.
First aid for burns
In the case of minor burns 1-2 degrees:Hold the burned area in cool water or apply a cold compress wet. The action of cold water helps to stop the damage to the skin and tissues. Close all of the burn with a clean dry cloth. You can use the-counter means to relieve pain and irritation.
Call your doctor if you notice any signs of infection in burns. Children, the elderly, patients with diabetes with kidney disease and other chronic diseases are at risk and they often develop infectious complications. Burned skin can itch and hurt for a few weeks and stay for a year is especially sensitive to sunlight. Be careful and do not forget to use sunscreen.
Check whether you need tetanus serum.
In the case of severe burns:If you see that man burns clothing, bring a blanket, towel, rug or coat and try to extinguish the flames. To do this, hold the cloth tightly to the burning area to pull the plug. The victim because of panic and pain can break out and try to escape, try to get him to lie quietly on the floor to eliminate the fire quickly.
Remove all clothing, which can smolder after extinguishing the fire. Leave the clothing only if it is stuck to the body, so as not to hurt even more burned areas.
Call an ambulance.
If victim is conscious and not vomiting, try to get him a drink of warm water. Water will restore the supply of fluid in the body.
What can a doctor?Antibiotics against bacterial infections.
In severe burns to refer you to the burn center for specialized treatment.
Preventive measuresCarefully read the labels of household chemicals, and follow the instructions. Potentially hazardous substances is better to wound in closed containers. Use protective gloves and goggles when working with chemicals. Never store household chemicals, along with food and drinks.
All chemicals are tightly closed and keep out of reach of children.