What is toxoplasmosis?Toxoplasmosis - a widespread parasitic disease of humans and animals, which is caused by toxoplasmosis. Among infectious diseases caused by protozoa, toxoplasmosis - one of the most extended ones, and the most dangerous for expectant mothers. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the world is incredibly high, mainly due to the countries of Africa, and Latin and South America, in which the infection of the population and up to 90%. Indicators in Europe and North America below 25.50% of the population. Russia occupies a middle position in Europe are infected and 30% of the population, about one child in a thousand infected with toxoplasmosis.
Toxoplasmosis - an insidious disease. It can take place completely unnoticed and cause unpleasant complications during pregnancy. And can lead to severe visual impairment or seizures. That is why it is better to know about toxoplasmosis all. This is especially important if the house has a cat or dog, because pets are often very close to us, for them to properly care for, and if necessary, treat.
The causes toxoplasmosisToxoplasma Infection of humans occurs pets, mostly from cats. Especially dangerous is the contamination for pregnant women, so it is better not to contact with cats.
Infection can occur by eating meat products, eggs from infected animals that have not undergone sufficient heat treatment. Toxoplasma can enter directly into the blood of a person through broken skin or transmitted by blood-sucking insects. Finally, there are cases of intrauterine infection and.
Factors that may contribute to the appearance of the parasite in the body and increase the risk of toxoplasmosis:
Touching dirty hands to the mouth after contact with the ground, after cleaning the litter box, or any other contact with cat feces.
Take in food raw or not fully cooked meat, especially pork, lamb or venison.
Touching the mouth after contact with raw or neprozharennoe / undercooked meat.
Organ transplant or blood transfusion (very rare).
If a woman is pregnant, and she became infected with toxoplasmosis, an infection can be passed from her child, which can lead to serious consequences.
The manifestations of toxoplasmosisThere are congenital and acquired toxoplasmosis.
Congenital toxoplasmosisOf particular concern is the probability of intrauterine infection of the fetus. Toxoplasma gondii can cross the placenta and cause disease in the unborn child. But this is possible only when the mother becomes infected with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. If she contracted before pregnancy, the unborn baby is not in danger.
In congenital toxoplasmosis organ damage is significant. Thus, there may be congenital malformations of the eyeball, until the development of blindness, underdevelopment of the brain and spinal cord. The severity of the fetus is closely linked with the timing of pregnancy - the younger the fetus, the harder the disease.
As a result of congenital toxoplasmosis fetus or die as a result of a malformation incompatible with life, or is born with symptoms of severe congenital toxoplasmosis - intoxication, fever, yellowness, lesions of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and central nervous system (encephalomyelitis).
But toxoplasmosis can affect fruit only once, all subsequent pregnancy are safe formed antibodies in the mother.
Acquired toxoplasmosisAcquired toxoplasmosis often occurs in the latent (hidden) form; acute form can resemble a fever or encephalitis, frequent damage to eyes. Acute stage lasts about 7 days. Acute toxoplasmosis begins with a high fever, headache, seizures, vomiting. Increased liver and spleen may join pneumonia and paralysis.
The most common form of the disease is chronic, long before the rise in temperature 37,2-37,8 degrees, headaches, enlarged liver, spleen, lymph nodes, muscle and joint pain. It is also possible carrier of infection.
The chronic form, and frequently become carriers of the acute form of the stress, pregnancy, reduced immunity of different nature. On the severity of symptoms of toxoplasmosis significantly affect overall health, immune status. In individuals with immunodeficiency (including AIDS), the disease is extremely difficult, often fatal.
Prevention of toxoplasmosisGood hygiene when preparing food - one of the main measures of protection against infection.
Given the possibility of sexual transmission of infection appropriate use of barrier methods of contraception, antiseptic sprays. Special attention to the prevention of toxoplasmosis should be given to families where there is domestic animals (especially cats). Do not let the cats run around the tables, limit your contact with the cat, wash your hands thoroughly after contact with animals. Do not bring the animal to a person, and especially not kiss him. Charge changing cat litter to other members of the family.
Compliance with preventive measures can significantly reduce the risk of infection.
What can a doctor do?The need for treatment and the choice of drugs for the treatment of only a specialist could pick up.
Treatment of toxoplasmosis is carried out not everything. This is necessary only when expressed signs of the disease in children and frail adults. Treat usually several antibacterial drugs in various combinations.
Chronic toxoplasmosis can be treated with great difficulty, in this case, except for antibiotics used tools that strengthen the immune system.
Carriers toxoplasma treatment is required.
If any of the primary toxoplasmosis during early pregnancy, women are encouraged to make an abortion.
What can you do?As noted above, the greatest danger is toxoplasmosis to the fetus.
When planning a pregnancy better protect themselves and the unborn child and to cease all contact with animals and rodents.