Sepsis is translated from the Greek means rot. This is a serious infectious disease of humans that develops as a systemic inflammatory response in contact with the blood of infectious agents (bacteria or single-celled fungi) or their toxins. Among the people who are not related to medicine, sepsis, often called blood poisoning. It is characterized by severe progressive course, and no tendency to spontaneous recovery. In spite of the increased capabilities of antibacterial and antifungal therapies in sepsis mortality rate is still high.
Causes of the disease
The agents of sepsis can be any bacteria (staphylococcus, streptococcus, pneumococcus, meningococcus, Salmonella, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella) or fungi (genus Candida, Aspergillus). The occurrence of sepsis is caused not so much by the properties of the agent, as the state of the human immune system, in particular the inability to localize the agent at the primary site of infection. The same aureus can be found in individuals in the mucous membranes without the development of any pathology, and others – to cause sepsis deaths. The most commonly sepsis develops in people with weakened immune systems due to severe illness, major surgery, abundant blood loss, malnutrition or use of immunosuppressive drugs.
Contact with infectious agents in the blood stream can occur either when the generalization of a local infection, or when writing the microorganisms from the outside during surgery, catheterization of veins and other medical procedures. The primary focus of septic infection can be any soft tissues, bones, joints and internal organs: extensive wound or burn the surface, purulent skin diseases (carbuncle, boil, abscess), osteomyelitis, urinary tract infections, etc. Special attention should be infectious complications after childbirth or abortion, “entrance gate” of infection in this case is the lining of the uterus. At a time when medical abortion was banned, and the operations were carried out in secret under non-sterile conditions, sepsis was the main cause of death of pregnant women.
The symptoms of sepsis
Feature of sepsis is that its symptoms are similar regardless of the causative agent, as are some of the human response to an infection of a super-strong, with which the immune system is unable to cope in the infection.
The clinical picture is of general intoxication symptoms and manifestations of disease caused by infectious foci. Intoxication manifested severe weakness, loss of appetite, fever and chills, tachycardia, decreased blood pressure and shortness of breath. Characteristic of multiple organ failure and systems with the development of cardiac, respiratory, renal, adrenal insufficiency, etc. On examination revealed a high leukocytosis, leukopenia less sharply increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lymphopenia, hypoproteinemia.
Diagnosis of sepsis is based on the clinical picture of the disease, detection of pathogenic microorganisms in the blood, detection of septic lesions in various organs and tissues.
Treatment of sepsis is complex, involves a massive anti-bacterial or anti-fungal therapy, detoxifying therapy. Should be carried out in the intensive care unit. In some cases, you may need a transfusion of blood components.
The prognosis for any form of sepsis is always serious. The earlier treatment is started, the better the chance of full recovery. The complexity of the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis is the presence of a large number of forms erased when the clinical picture is not so bright.
Prevention of sepsis is based on correct and timely treatment of local septic processes and aseptic conditions during operations and other medical procedures.
To prevent sepsis may also include competent use of antibacterial agents. It should be understood that any bacteria and fungi are able to develop resistance to drugs. The more powerful antibiotics we use, the more and “smarter” are our enemies. Using the latest generation of antibiotics without proper evidence of funds deprives us of the struggle in really serious situations where these drugs could save the lives of people.