GeneralMalaria is a serious infectious disease mainly transmitted to man by mosquitoes species Anopheles. In addition, the disease can be transmitted from mother to fetus, transfusion of infected blood and through contact with the blood of an infected person (eg, reuse of syringes addicts). Malaria is prevalent in tropical areas, especially in rural areas. In some countries it has reached epidemic levels, while in the cities, the problem is less of an issue.
ReasonsThe disease is caused by one of four species of malaria parasites called plasmodium. Plasmodium enters the human bloodstream through the bite of an infected mosquito. It is known that mosquitoes of the Anopheles species are usually active at night.
The symptoms of malariaThe disease runs in cycles. Attack of malaria usually lasts 6-10 hours, and shows sharp rise in temperature to high numbers and a succession of periods of fever with shivering, fever and sweat. Closing an attack characterized by a reduction of temperature to normal or subnormal numbers and sweating going on 2 - 5 hours Then comes a deep sleep. The attack is usually accompanied by headache and muscle pain, fatigue, weakness, nausea and vomiting. In some cases, it may be jaundice (yellow skin and sclera icterus), coma.
Cycle repeats every 48 or 72 hours.
If you experience such symptoms are advised to seek medical attention. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis requires hospitalization.
ComplicationsIn the most unpleasant symptoms of the disease, malaria is very dangerous for its complications:
- Liver damage, which can manifest yellowness of the skin.
- Lung with a strong cough with bloody sputum.
- Heart failure.
- Damage to the brain, accompanied by convulsions, delirium, paralysis or coma.
- Hemoglobinuric fever, characterized by massive destruction of red blood cells and leading to acute jaundice excretion of hemoglobin in the urine, loss of consciousness and kidney failure.
What you can do?If you have visited areas specific to malaria, or you recently performed a blood transfusion, and the onset of the disease symptoms are similar to those described above, you should consult a doctor.
What can a doctor?For the diagnosis requires a blood test to detect the parasite. Treatment for a specific anti-malarial drugs (delagil, hingamin, chloroquine, etc.) only in the hospital and under medical supervision. It is very important to prevent possible complications and treat them in the initial stages. In severe cases may require a blood transfusion.
Prevention of MalariaAvoid traveling to malarial areas. If you do go in the epidemic area, ask your doctor or pharmacist about possible ways of prevention. There are special anti-malarial drugs. Course start 1-2 weeks before the trip, continue to welcome throughout your stay in the area of the epidemic, and four weeks after returning.
In addition, you need to protect yourself from mosquito bites.