Causes of leprosy
The causative agent of the disease is Hansen’s bacillus. Gateway for infection in the human body are the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and the skin.
The incubation period lasting from 3 to 5 years. registered cases when from infection to onset of symptoms, was held for several decades.
The symptoms of leprosy
According to the clinical manifestations can be divided into two forms of the disease: tuberculoid and lepromatous.
For the lepromatous form is characterized mainly skin lesions, while tuberculoid affected nerves.
The disease develops gradually. First symptom of intoxication is increasing. Increased body temperature, a headache, joint pain and weakness. Some patients complain of drowsiness and violations of sweating.
The first characteristic feature is the appearance of leprosy in the skin of dark or light spots. Their feature is the loss of sensation or a perversion. Also typical spots for sealing portions and infiltration, all this leads to the formation of large wrinkles, particularly on the face. That is why one of the characteristic symptoms of the disease is the “lion face”.
It is also characterized by loss of eyebrows, the retraction of the back of the nose, drooping earlobes.
When leprosy affected nasal mucosa. This leads to disruption of breath, nosebleeds, and the destruction of the nasal septum.
Observed inflammation of the eyes and throat.
Men due to infiltration and scarring develops testicular infertility.
Complications of leprosy
Leprosy, or rather its skin elements that alter the appearance of the person, often disfiguring beyond recognition.
As a result of nerve damage is muscle atrophy, leading to the loss of the phalanges, ulceration of the cornea and contractures of foot and hand.
Diagnosis of leprosy
For the diagnosis of leprosy are important epidemiological data, ie information about the movements of people in the past few years. At present time, there are a few pockets of leprosy. This is Asia, Africa and South America.
To confirm the diagnosis of conduct special studies in which the material of the skin lesions revealed acid-fast bacilli.
There are also special serological and histological studies.
The treatment of leprosy
The treatment of leprosy should be comprehensive.
It includes specific anti-leprosy drugs, stimulants (vitamins, immunoglobulins, immunomodulators).
Treatment of leprosy in an advanced stage conducts courses at monthly intervals between them.