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Infectious Mononucleosis


Infectious mononucleosis is a disease caused by a virus, Epstein-Barr virus. It is characterized by fever, enlarged lymph nodes, inflammation of the tonsils and certain changes in the cells of the blood. Most often, the infection occurs in childhood and adolescence. According to statistics, about 90% of adults have antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus, and consequently, they are at least once in a lifetime encounter with the infection.

Causes of the disease

Epstein-Barr virus belongs to the family of herpes viruses. The main source of infection - people who are infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. The virus is released into the environment with the saliva, and transmission occurs through airborne droplets or by kissing. Upon infection, the virus enters the oropharynx, penetrates her mucosa and lymphocytes, which multiplies and spreads throughout the body, causing disease. After the disease in the body produces strong immunity.

The symptoms of infectious mononucleosis

The incubation period lasts from 4 to 6 weeks.

The disease begins acutely. The patient has a weakness, headache, muscle aches and joint pain, sore throat when swallowing, disturbed sleep and appetite, body temperature rises to 38-39 degrees. Then there is an increase in cervical lymph nodes and tonsils (tonsillitis). In the course of the disease is always in some way increases the liver and spleen. The disease lasts about 2-4 weeks, then begin a gradual recovery.

Diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis

Diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis is based on the clinical picture and additional blood tests.

Diagnosis is confirmed by studies of blood, in which the disease process in developing characteristic change: leukocytosis, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and the emergence of atypical mononuclear cells characteristic of infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Besides confirmation of the diagnosis is the detection of antiviral immunoglobulin M.

Treatment of infectious mononucleosis

Specific therapy has not been developed. Treatment is symptomatic, tonic. Because of the risk of splenic rupture recommended limitation of physical activity in the first 1-1.5 months. Hospitalized patients with moderate to severe disease. Patients with mild can be treated at home.