- intrauterine device
- Hormonal spiral
The action of the Navy:
1. Influenced IUD trauma occurs endometrial release of prostaglandins, the tone of the muscles of the uterus, which leads to the expulsion of an embryo at early stages of implantation.
2. Navy strengthens contractions of the fallopian tubes and uterus so the fertilized egg enters the uterus prematurely. Trophoblast is still defective, the endometrium is not prepared to accept a fertilized egg, resulting in the implantation appears to be impossible.
3. Navy as a foreign body causing leukocyte infiltration of the endometrium. Emerging inflammatory changes in the endometrium prevent implantation and further development of the blastocysts.
4. Leukocytic infiltration is accompanied by an increase in the number of macrophages, which carry sperm phagocytosis. Adding copper and silver to the Navy enhances the toxic effect of sperm.
IUD containing hormones are third generation Navy. A prerequisite for the creation of a new type of IUD was the desire to combine the advantages of two forms of contraception - OK and the Navy by reducing the disadvantages of each. These spirals have a direct local effect on the endometrium, fallopian tubes and the lining of the cervix. The advantage of this kind of spirals is to reduce hyperpolymenorrhea, reducing the frequency of inflammatory diseases of the genitals.
Contraindications to the use of IUDs:
1. Absolute contraindications:
- Acute and sub-acute inflammation of the genitals
- A confirmed or suspected pregnancy
- Confirmed malignancy or genitals.
2. Relative contraindications:
- Abnormal development of the reproductive system;
- Uterine fibroids;
- Endometrial hyperplasia;
- Anemia and other blood disorders.
Intrauterine systems typically administered at 4-6-day menstrual cycle. During this period, the cervical canal is slightly open, facilitating the procedure. In addition, at the time a woman can be confident in the absence of pregnancy. If necessary IUD can be administered in other phases of the cycle. IUD can be administered immediately after abortion and postpartum.
Intrauterine contraceptives - great reversible method of contraception. Navy has the following advantages:
- IUD use is not associated with the intervention of an ordinary woman's life - after the IUD is usually required only minimal medical treatment and observation;
- IUDs are a possible form of contraception for older women, especially in cases where counter-OK;
- IUDs can be used during breast-feeding
- The possibility of long-term use (5 to 10 years)
- The economic factor: the overall annual costs associated with the use of IUDs are relatively small for both women and for family planning programs.
Contraceptive effectiveness of the Lippes loop on average is 91%, the IUD with copper - 98%. When using the Lippes Loop pregnancy rate was 5.3/100 women-years. The introduction of the first copper IUDs reduced the pregnancy rate to less than 2/100 woman-years, and the use of more modern copper IUDs resulted in lower pregnancy rates to a level 0.4-0.5/100 women-years old.