Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that infects epithelial cells. Currently described more than 150 types of HPV. Depending on the type of reproduction of the human papillomavirus can cause the development of benign diseases of the skin and mucosal (genital warts, laryngeal papillomatosis, simple, plantar and flat warts) and precancerous lesions and genital squamous cell carcinoma. Infection with the virus can be contact and contact-household means. For most people, the infection is asymptomatic. Apparently, the infection persists throughout life, but most of the time, the virus carries in a latent state and is activated only occasionally. Asymptomatic infection does not require treatment. Newborns can be infected when passing through the infected genital tracts. Deliveries through infected genital tract can cause laryngeal papillomatosis or genital warts in children.

The danger of this is a viral infection that is oncogenic HPV. According to current data it is associated with the development of squamous cell carcinoma.

Genital warts

Genital warts are affected, usually young people, sexually active. Infection occurs by contact, including sexual. The highest probability of infection in the presence of genital warts in the genital mucosa of the sexual partner. Since HPV infection and illness can take from a few weeks to several years. Warts are mucosal proliferation as small tumor formations of different sizes and shapes. Warts are more common in the epithelium of the labia, clitoris, cervix, vagina, the external opening of the urethra, and the bridle of the foreskin of the penis, perineum, rectum. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease has been a gynecologist, urologist or proctologist. For diagnostic use the sample with acetic acid, blood serology, cytology smears with mucosal swabs of mucus on the viral DNA by PCR, biopsy formation.

The basic treatment is the removal of warts using cryosurgery, electrocautery, processing mucous various drugs. Applied also immunomodulatory drug therapy and antiviral drugs. Completely eliminate HPV from the body, it is usually impossible. However, removal of lesions reduces the risk of contracting partner. Partial prevention of infection is the use of condoms.

It will be appreciated that removal of the warts did not reduce the risk of cervical cancer. That’s why every infected woman should undergo an annual examination by a gynecologist with cytological examination of cervical smears.

Cervical Cancer

The disease is described in detail in the related article.

Numerous studies have shown that HPV plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. HPV DNA is also found in areas of dysplasia of the cervix, which is considered a precancerous condition. That’s why all infected women should be once a year to be screened at the gynecologist. The main method of diagnosis is smears from the mucous membrane of the cervix.

For the prevention of disease caused by the HPV vaccine developed against HPV. Vaccination is only possible if there is no laboratory-confirmed infections in humans. Currently, WHO recommends the HPV vaccine should be vaccinated all the girls before sexual debut.

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