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Pregnancy

Diagnosis of pregnancy

Signs of Pregnancy gynecologists are divided into alleged probable and credible. To carry a presumptive change in taste and olfactory sensations of appetite, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, skin hyperpigmentation and nipples, as well as frequent urination.

Probable grounds to include not attack the next menstruation, enlargement and breast tenderness, and a number of symptoms, detectable with a gynecological examination. Likely do not allow us to exclude an ectopic pregnancy.
Significant features include the detection of gestational sac at ultrasound study, the fetal heartbeat (detected by Doppler ultrasound with 7-9 weeks of pregnancy), fetal movements (feel the mother of 16 weeks).

Laboratory tests include a urine test for human chorionic gonadotropin (answers after 1-2 weeks after the implantation of the embryo or in the first days of a missed period), determine the level of H-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in serum (allows to give a precise answer within a few days after implantation even before a missed period).

Estimated date of birth

The average length of gestation counting from the 1st day of the last menstrual period, is 280 days or 40 weeks. Proposed date of birth is given by Negele: from the 1st day of the last menstrual period is counted back 3 months and add 7 days.

Antenatal care

You can choose the health care provider to monitor the progress of pregnancy, depending on your preferences and financial possibilities.

Free you can be seen in the antenatal clinic at his residence or at the place of actual residence. Free - does not always mean bad. You might get a friendly, highly qualified physician who will be watching you all 9 months, to send all the necessary inspections and expert advice.

Before you give birth exchange card, which will be made all the surveys. With this card you exchange and go to the maternity hospital. In addition, you can refer to one of the paid medical centers. Perfect when prenatal care and childbirth will lead a doctor.

In the case of a pregnant woman any disease doctor may prescribe additional tests.

In uncomplicated pregnancy check-ups carried out 1 time per month, from 28 th to 36th week 1 every 2 weeks, and after the 36th week every week. Regularly measure the weight gain, monitor blood pressure and the presence of edema, determine the height of standing uterus, hear the fetal heartbeat.

Pregnant woman should regularly take a urine test to exclude glycosuria (detection of sugar in the urine) and proteinuria (protein detection in urine).

Professional consultations

Haematologist should visit if the mother and father of the child are not the same for Rh blood. In pregnancy, the incompatibility of Rh-negative mother's blood type and Rh-positive blood of the fetus (baby may inherit the Rh factor from the father) can lead to Rh conflict. This situation is not easy, though, and decide: just doctors will make additional efforts to ensure that pregnancy and childbirth were no complications.
Medical genetic counseling is needed in the following cases:

- Maternal age older than 35 years old and the father over 50 years
- In the family has occurred chromosomal and genetic abnormalities are inherited diseases;
- Prior to having a child with developmental disabilities or mental retardation;
- Spouses are in a fairly close relationship (eg, second cousins)
- Drug abuse or exposure to harmful factors.

Nutrition during pregnancy

Food should include all the basic foods, plenty of fluids, fiber and calcium. Avoid spicy and fatty foods. In the normal diet of the original caloric intake should be not less than 2400 kcal / day. The diet should contain 60-80 grams of protein, high in fiber, as well as milk and dairy products. Digestible carbohydrates and fats should be limited. Body weight at the end of pregnancy increases by an average of 10-12 kg. Malnutrition increases the risk of fetal growth restriction, and excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases the risk of development of the fetus and the risk of major birth defect. In some cases, doctors prescribe extra folic acid and iron supplements.

The impact of harmful factors

Every woman and the surrounding people have to understand the effect may have some harmful substances to the unborn child. Smoking during pregnancy can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, congenital malformations and respiratory disorders in the newborn. Regular consumption of alcohol leads to the development of fetal alcohol syndrome, and there is a direct relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the severity of the disease. If a pregnant occupational hazard she has a right to expect a longer maternity leave. It is important to remember also that pregnant women can not lift weights, run in the heat and high humidity.

The fact that the tab key organs of the fetus occurs in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, and if you do not limit yourself to the above factors, it can cause irreparable harm to your baby.

It should be remembered that many medications can have an adverse effect on the fetus. Therefore, before taking any medication should be read carefully. Try not to take any drugs without a prescription.

Possible complaints

Major violations of health of pregnant women, usually caused by cardiovascular and hormonal changes, increased cancer and impaired posture:

- Headache, back pain (the drug of choice is paracetamol, aspirin is contraindicated)
- Nausea and vomiting (recommended to split meals in small portions)
- Constipation (recommended a diet high in fiber)
- Varicose veins of the legs (should wear special elastic stockings and more often to keep your feet in an elevated position).

Harbingers of premature birth

All pregnant women should keep in mind the signs of premature birth, and in the case of identifying them, immediately seek medical attention.

These include:
- Chaotic movements of the fetus, lasting more than 30 seconds. and emerging more than 4 times in 1 hour;
- Bouts of cramping abdominal pain lasting more than 4 seconds. and emerging more than 4 times in 1 hour;
- Periodic nagging pain in the lower abdomen
- Change the nature of discharge or bleeding from the genital tract;
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.

Psychological and physical preparation for childbirth

The proper attitude for childbirth and self-confidence woman should cultivate throughout the pregnancy. This will greatly help you Classes for expectant mothers, as well as reading additional literature. On the courses you will learn proper breathing technique, will show a special set of exercises aimed at preparing the muscles and ligaments to strengthen the delivery and back.

Small physical activities necessary for all women with uncomplicated pregnancies. To do this, fit walking, swimming, aerobics or a special course.