GeneralPregnancy, from conception to the birth of a child, normally lasts for 280 days or 40 weeks. However, sometimes it is not possible to prolong the pregnancy to her normal life. Miscarriage - spontaneous abortion within the time from conception to 37 weeks, counting from the first day of the last menstrual period. Spontaneous abortion up to 28 weeks is called spontaneous abortion or miscarriage, 28 to 37 weeks - premature birth.
There is a difference between spontaneous abortion, which is itself, and abortion, which is done deliberately by mechanical or chemical means. Spontaneous abortion and fetal death preceded.
Causes of miscarriage- Defects and fetal deformity due to improper development
- An imbalance of hormones in the mother, such as thyroid disease and diabetes;
- Acute infectious diseases which produces toxins carried in the blood of the mother;
- Poisoning by chemicals commonly lead;
- Maternal lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to radiation, each of which can be toxic to the embryo
- Pathology of the uterus, such as chronic inflammation or displacement of the whole body;
- Weakness or failure of the cervix
- Lack of strong attachment of the placenta to the uterine wall;
- Complications resulting from kidney disease.
Symptoms- Brownish vaginal bleeding or spotting;
- Attacks of acute abdominal pain along with pain in the lower back
- Sometimes dizziness and blurred vision.
What you can do?You should immediately go to the nearest hospital (an ambulance) at the first sign of vaginal bleeding regardless of whether there is a concomitant pain.
You need a strict bed rest for a week or longer (it may stop the progression of threatened abortion). However, check with your doctor whether bed rest is the only thing you need. Abstain from sexual intercourse and vigorous physical activity.
Seek psychological counseling, if after an abortion or miscarriage you begin depression and deteriorating health. Often, women have an unreasonable sense of guilt and anxiety about future pregnancies.
What can a doctor?If the pregnancy can still be saved, the doctor will recommend a complete bed rest with legs elevated position or raised foot of the bed. Often require hospitalization. In this case, strict bed rest means that the patient does not get out of bed, even to get to the toilet.
If a doctor deems it necessary, may be assigned to hormonal medication to prevent abortion. However, these medications should be used very wisely. Affecting the hormonal profile of the fetus, they can cause damage to the sexual differentiation of the child, with the result that the boys are signs female and girls features a male.
If the fetus is no longer alive, but not expelled (from the uterus), the procedure called vacuum extraction. This technique requires local or general anesthesia involves dilation of the cervix, the introduction and removal of the vacuum tube of the uterus.
If the fetus is removed from the uterus, but an incomplete abortion, curettage is the procedure to clear the uterus from the remnants of a failed pregnancy.
Incomplete miscarriage during the second trimester of pregnancy can be treated by intravenous administration of oxytocin, a woman, a hormone that causes contractions of the uterus to remove any remaining tissue in a process similar to a normal delivery.
The extracted material from the uterus necessarily examined for pathology that could explain the cause of miscarriage.
In the next 3-4 days after the abortion (or abortion, and especially if the abortion was caused by artificially) the doctor carefully monitors to prevent infection, especially sepsis, or blood poisoning. At the first signs of infection (chills, fever, increased heart rate, dry and coated tongue with red edges) usually prescribe antibiotics.
Prevention of miscarriageDespite the fact that in individual cases is difficult to find the cause of miscarriage, recurrent episodes are worth to consider them in detail.
This is usually carried out the following studies:
- Genetic and chromosomal study of maternal and amniotic fluid.
- Evaluation of the hormonal status of women, to help diagnose thyroid disease, diabetes. It is also quantification of hormones necessary for normal ovulation.
- Blood tests to help determine the possible immunological abnormalities such as the development of antibodies that can cause miscarriage. This usually happens if the Rh-negative mother is pregnant with the positive fruit of the Rh factor, to inherit from his father.
- Hysterography or hysteroscopy, in which the anatomy of the uterus evaluated.
If the causes of miscarriage and there is a risk of repeated episodes, your doctor will advise you to take suitable measures
- If the identified deviations from the uterus, such as polyps, fibroids, possibly performing surgery before trying to get pregnant.
- With the weakness or failure of the cervix, are imposed on it seams at least 14 weeks of pregnancy.