GeneralPeptic ulcer disease - a chronic disease, which is based on recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcer. Typically, an ulcer occurs against gastritis (inflammation of the gastric mucosa) and duodenitis (inflammation of the mucosa of the duodenum), infection associated with Helicobacter pylori. Peptic ulcer disease is common in people of any age, but most often between the ages of 30-40 years, men are affected 6-7 times more often than women.
Causes of the diseaseMucosal damage with the formation of ulcers, erosions and inflammation associated with advantage aggression factor (hydrochloric acid, pepsin, bile acids) on the mucosal protective factors. An important role has the infection Helicobacter pylori. These microorganisms can cause inflammation of the mucous membrane, disrupting the local protective factors and increasing acidity. Factors contributing to the occurrence of the disease include:
- Long-term neuro-emotional strain;
- Genetic predisposition;
- The presence of chronic gastritis or duodenitis;
- Of eating disorders;
- The use of alcoholic beverages and smoking;
- Use of certain drugs (acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, etc.).
The symptoms of peptic ulcer diseaseThe most characteristic manifestation of peptic ulcer is pain in the upper abdomen, which is more likely to occur on an empty stomach, that is, between meals. Pain may also occur at night, causing the patient to wake up and eat. The pain usually subsides within the first 30 minutes after a meal. Less specific, but occurring at a peptic ulcer symptoms include nausea, heaviness after eating, feeling of fullness in the abdomen, vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, heartburn.
Complications- Is the formation of ulcer perforation holes in the wall of the stomach or duodenum. This is one of the most dangerous complications of peptic ulcer, it leads to unnecessarily entering contents of the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity and the abdominal cavity infection.
- The bleeding is usually manifested by staining the chair in black (blood passing through the gastrointestinal tract is oxidized and becomes black).
- Malignancy transformation into a malignant tumor ulcer.
Complications of peptic ulcer disease is a series of life-threatening diseases to be aware of any patient with peptic ulcer disease. That's why you can never delay treatment of ulcers and stop therapy.
What you can do?The main task of the patient is the adherence to diet and careful execution of a physician. The basis of medical diet is a chemical, mechanical and thermal sparing the affected organ. Exclude products that increase gastric secretion (spicy, pickled, salted, roasted, smoked foods, alcoholic drinks, coffee, tea, sodas, rich broth). Do not eat very hot or cold foods. Smokers are advised to stop smoking, as experts conclusively proven that smoking is not only difficult to heal (lengthens the time of treatment), but also increases the risk of relapse (recurrence) ulcers. Also, patients with ulcers should avoid taking aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
What can a doctor?For the diagnosis of peptic ulcer used a number of studies:
- X-ray of the abdomen.
- Fibroezofagogastroduodenoscopy (FEGDS). Endoscopic examination confirms the presence of the ulcer, said his location, depth, shape, dimensions, to assess the condition of the bottom and the edges of the ulcer, to identify related changes in the mucous membranes. FEGDS allows you to take a biopsy of the wall of the affected organ, followed by histological examination of the material obtained to rule out a malignant nature of the lesion.
- PH meter - a study of acid-forming function of the stomach.
- Fecal occult blood test (for the diagnosis of possible bleeding).
- Studies infection Helicobacter pylori (a Breath test to detect serum antibodies to Helicobacter pylori, culturing taken at FEGDS material).
Drug treatment of peptic ulcer must include drugs that reduce excretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. If the ulcer is caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori, the doctor prescribe additional anti-bacterial medication for at least 7 days. h2>Prevention of peptic ulcer disease In order to prevent recommended:
- Measures to reduce nervous tension;
- Cessation of smoking and alcohol consumption;
- Normalization of diet quality and composition of food;
- Treatment of chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis.