Cirrhosis – a progressive disease of the liver characterized by the restructuring of the normal structure of the liver, resulting in disturbed liver function, and in the subsequent development of liver failure and portal hypertension. In economically developed countries, cirrhosis among the six major causes of death in patients 35 to 60 years. Unfortunately, quite often, the cause of cirrhosis, to identify possible.
Diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease
Diagnostics peptic ulcer disease has been a doctor – a gastroenterologist. At the reception, the doctor will collect a detailed medical history. He will ask questions about the nature of power, the rhythm of life, especially professional activities, etc. Next, your doctor will conduct inspection and palpation of the abdomen. In the period of acute peptic ulcer disease when examining physician may note pain in the epigastric region (the upper part of the abdomen), palpation, combined with moderate resistance abdominal muscles.
Under diaphragmatic hernia understand the movement of the abdominal organs into the chest through a natural or abnormal opening in the diaphragm. Aperture – a muscle plate which is disposed between the abdominal and thoracic cavities of the body. Function of the diaphragm on the one hand is the delimitation of these cavities, on the other – is the respiratory diaphragm muscle, which plays an active role in the process of breathing.
Diverticula – is similar hernia protrusions of the intestinal wall, which may be located in both the small and the large intestine and is usually not accompanied by any symptom. However, in some cases it may happen inflammation diverticulum, which is called diverticulitis.
Hydatid disease – a disease of humans and animals caused by parasitizing larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus. The disease can be asymptomatic for years. Clinical manifestations occur with an increase in the size of the parasite cysts and compression of the surrounding organs. Treatment mainly surgical.
The liver is actively involved in the metabolism of fats. Fats from food in the gut cleaved by enzymes and absorbed into the bloodstream. From there they get to the liver, where they are converted into triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids and other necessary substances for our body. Fatty liver accumulation occurs in the case of high hepatic triglycerides. When fatty triglycerides can reach more than 50% of its mass (OK – no more than 5%).
Flatulence – is an excessive accumulation of gas in the intestines, manifested by abdominal bloating, a feeling of discomfort in the abdomen and belching. The gas produced by bacteria in the fermentation of food, and air can suck on while eating or talking (usually goes with belching). Flatulence is not heavy or dangerous disease, but often the cause of embarrassment and discomfort.
Food poisoning can occur if a person eats foods Infected bacteria, viruses, small animals or plants (eg, plankton), fungi, parasites or toxins. However, not in all cases, after the transmission to humans of such products will develop the disease. Some people are more resistant to them, the other is easier to become infected and sick harder.
Gallstones are formed from cholesterol crystals or, at least – of bile salts. Stones can be as small as a grain of sand or larger, the size of a walnut. Cholecystitis or biliary colic occurs when the stone is in the gall bladder, bile duct clogs by which bile flows from the gallbladder to the small intestine. It is believed that the stones are formed due to an imbalance of substances from which bile is produced. The attack of gallstones are often triggered by abundant fatty foods.
Gastritis – an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach. There are acute and chronic gastritis. The bacteria Helicobacter pylori, colonizing the gastric mucosa are the most frequent causative agent of the options gastritis – gastritis with high acidity of gastric juice. Diagnosis and treatment of gastritis should carry a qualified medical doctor – a gastroenterologist. Treatment of gastritis include dieting, drugs that normalize the acidity of gastric juice and / or reducing the gastric mucosa, with the presence of Helicobacter pilori – antibiotic therapy.
Heartburn – is a burning sensation in the chest, which may be accompanied by nausea, bloating, belching, bitter or sour taste in the mouth and throat. Heartburn is most often the case after a heavy meal and lying down.
Helicobacter pylori infection
Helicobacter pylori – a bacterium that feeds on human gastric mucosa. These bacteria are capable of producing and releasing a large amount of enzymes and toxins, which promote mucosal cell damage that can lead to inflammatory and ulcerous diseases of the stomach and duodenum. It is known that almost 60% of the world’s population are infected with Helicobacter pylori. Therefore, not every infected person gets sick stomach ulcer, but in most cases of this infection is detected.
When dysbiosis is a change of qualitative and quantitative composition of intestinal microflora – the population of beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli significantly reduced and the amount of pathogenic microorganisms growing. The main causes of dysbiosis include long uncontrolled use of antibiotics; surviving an acute intestinal infection, unbalanced diet, chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms and signs are usually associated with a disease or condition that caused the goiter, and are not specific.
Irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome is usually manifested bloating and cramps, and disorders of the intestines. Symptoms QDSL vary in different individuals. For example, one – is constipation (difficult and rare bowel movements), the other – diarrhea, and a third may be those and other symptoms at the same time. QDSL is not a serious illness. In fact, doctors believe QDSL functional disorder, since the examination of the colon revealed no signs of illness. QDSL often occurs on the background of stress, fatigue, nervous overstimulation.
Liver failure – syndrome characterized by violation of one or many of the functions of the liver due to acute or chronic damage to its fabric. Every year the world of fulminant (lightning), liver failure killed 2 million people. Mortality from this symptom is 50-80%.
Pancreatitis – an inflammation of the pancreas. Under ordinary conditions of digestive enzymes in the cells are inactivated. However, due to various factors, their activation can occur, and they will start to digest the pancreatic parenchyma and the body’s own tissues as easily as exogenous food. Inflammation of the pancreas and the output of digestive enzymes in the blood causes of severe intoxication.
Peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum
Peptic ulcer disease – a chronic disease, which is based on recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcer. Typically, an ulcer occurs against gastritis (inflammation of the gastric mucosa) and duodenitis (inflammation of the mucosa of the duodenum), infection associated with Helicobacter pylori..
Postcholecystectomical syndrome – a variety of ill effects that are observed after removal of the gallbladder. Postcholecystectomical syndrome is not a distinct disease. HE can occur almost immediately after surgery or delayed – a few months or years. It is believed that the main cause of postcholecystectomy syndrome is a disorder of the circulation of bile. However, there are other reasons.
Reflux esophagitis is an inflammation of the lining of the esophagus due to the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux). One of the main causes of reflux esophagitis is a hiatal hernia.
Treatment of chronic gastritis
Treatment of chronic gastritis is complex and includes recommendations for diet and nutrition, medications, physical therapy and spa treatment. The choice of treatment depends on the variant of chronic gastritis, gastric secretory function and the etiological factors that could lead to disease.
Treatment of peptic ulcer disease
The approaches to the treatment of peptic ulcer disease significantly changed over time in parallel with the way the changed views on its origins. To date, there are several possible mechanisms of its formation, although in general the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease is still poorly understood.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) – a chronic relapsing disease intestinal immune nature, characterized by diffuse inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine (rectum and colon). UC ill people of all age groups (usually between the ages of 20-40 and 60-70 years), men and women are equally likely to get sick. Accurate information about the cause of the disease is now gone. Among the factors contributing to the development of ulcerative colitis, should first call a family history.