OverviewThyrotoxicosis - a condition caused by a persistent increase in the level of thyroid hormones (thyroid hormone poisoning). Sometimes the term hyperthyroidism. With thyrotoxicosis in the blood to an excess of thyroid hormones and compounded by the effects that they cause in the norm. At several times increases the intensity of metabolism in the body. Despite the constant overeating, patients do not recover, and, conversely, lose weight. Many patients with thyrotoxicosis point constant thirst, excessive urination and diarrhea. Sometimes these patients are treated for a long time in the departments of cardiology and gastroenterology, before the correct diagnosis. There are changes in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Disturbed thermoregulation.
The doctor may suspect thyrotoxicosis in appearance and the characteristic behavior of the patient. Diagnosis is based on a study of thyroid function and determining the level of hormones in the blood. Your doctor will recommend a blood test for hormones. In thyrotoxicosis the TSH level is reduced, and the levels of T3 and T4 increased.
To refine the disease, against which the developed thyrotoxicosis, your doctor may prescribe the following studies: ultrasonography of the thyroid gland, scan (scintigraphy) of the thyroid gland with radioactive iodine or technetium, fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland (cells taken from any part of the thyroid gland by a thin needle in order to further study them under a microscope) to determine the level of antibodies to the structures of thyroid antibodies and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, a computer, or magnetic - resonance imaging (in the presence of endocrine eye disease or suspected disease of the pituitary gland).
The reasonsThyrotoxicosis is the syndrome (constellation of symptoms), which may be a manifestation of the following diseases: diffuse toxic goiter, nodular (multi-) goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (thyrotoxic phase).
Very rarely diagnosed in secondary thyrotoxicosis in the background pituitary adenoma. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is synthesized in the normal pituitary gland and controls the thyroid gland. When a pituitary tumor, it is released in excess and there is constant stimulation of the thyroid gland and its production of hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis- Weight loss,
- Heart palpitations,
- Feeling the heat in the body,
- Shaking (tremor) of the body and especially the fingers,
- Excessive sweating,
- Frequent unstable chair,
- Irritability and fatigue,
- Intolerance of closeness,
- Impaired attention and memory,br> - Restlessness,
- Disruption of the menstrual cycle in women up to amenorrhea,
- Loss of libido in men.
Some patients are "eye symptoms" in the form of exophthalmos "bulge" eyes forward. Exophthalmos due to swelling of the tissues of the orbit (of all that surrounds the eye) and is manifested by the following symptoms: increased palpebral fissure with the advent of the white stripe between the iris and the upper eyelid, a rare blinking eyelids and impaired ability to stare at close range.
In addition to symptoms of Thyrotoxicosis are usually present manifestation of the underlying disease as a goiter (swelling of the neck in the region of the thyroid gland), pain and discomfort in the neck, impaired swallowing, breathing, hoarseness, etc.
As the severity of release: thyrotoxicosis mild, moderate and severe.
What you can do?If you find yourself at the above symptoms, try as early as possible to see a doctor.
What can a doctor?There are three main methods of treatment of thyrotoxicosis: medication, surgery and treatment with radioactive iodine.
When conservative treatment assigned thyreostatics that inhibit the activity of the thyroid gland. This therapy requires accurate and timely medication and regular visits to an endocrinologist. Drugs are also trying to compensate for the dysfunction of the central nervous system, the hypothalamus, the autonomic nervous system.
Treatment with radioactive iodine is to receive a liquid or capsule containing radioactive iodine. Once in the body, iodine is accumulated by cells of the thyroid gland, which leads to their destruction and replacement by connective tissue. The most common complication of treatment with radioactive iodine is thyrotoxicosis - decrease in thyroid function. In such cases, lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy.
Surgical treatment is indicated in cases of failure of conservative treatment, as well as the presence of a significant increase in thyroid cancer, a malignant tumor is suspected, or retrosternal goiter location.