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Thyroiditis

What is thyroiditis?

Thyroiditis - an inflammation of the thyroid gland intact.

The causes of thyroiditis

There are acute, subacute and chronic thyroiditis.
Sharp, in turn, may be purulent and non-purulent.
Subacute thyroiditis, also called de Quervain.

Chronic can be fibrous (Riedel's struma) and autoimmune (Hashimoto's thyroiditis).
Acute suppurative thyroiditis develops in the presence of acute or chronic infection (tonsillitis, pneumonia, sepsis, etc.).
Acute non-purulent thyroiditis may develop after trauma, hemorrhage into the thyroid gland, radiation therapy.
Subacute thyroiditis develops after viral infections (ARI, Coxsackie, mumps infection, etc.). Sick more often women aged 30-50 years.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, chronic disease, which is based on the defeat of autoimmune thyroid disease, produced antibodies to the various components of the thyroid gland (normal antibodies in the human body are produced only at the foreign substance). This is the most common inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland. The most common autoimmune thyroiditis occurs in patients between 40 and 50 years, and women are ten times more often than men. And lately autoimmune thyroiditis suffers more and more young patients and children.

The cause of chronic fibrous thyroiditis is unknown. There is a version that goiter Riedel is the final stage of autoimmune thyroiditis. The risk of developing the disease are people who have seen Graves' disease or any form of endemic goiter.

The manifestations of thyroiditis

Acute suppurative thyroiditis: a pain in the front of the neck, radiating to the neck, upper and lower jaw, aggravated by movement of the head, swallowing. Swollen lymph nodes. Fever, chills.

Acute non-purulent thyroiditis: manifestations are less pronounced than in acute purulent inflammation of the thyroid gland.

Subacute thyroiditis: a pain in the neck, extending to the occipital region, jaw, ears, temporal area, headache, weakness, decreased motor activity, increased body temperature. At the beginning of the disease (hyperthyroid, the acute stage) can be observed symptoms of thyrotoxicosis: increased frequency of heart rate, sweating, weight loss, hand tremor. In the blood - increased levels of thyroid hormones. In the long may develop symptoms of hypothyroidism (hypothyroid phase), drowsiness, lethargy, confusion, sensitivity to cold, swelling of the face, dry skin, slowing of heart rate, constipation. The thyroid gland is enlarged (often just the right proportion), heavy, painful. In the blood - low thyroid hormones.
In the recovery stage disappears tenderness of the thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels.

The disease tends to recur (return), especially with repeated viral infections, colds.

Chronic fibrous thyroiditis: diffuse (widespread), rarely focal enlargement of the thyroid gland. Iron is very dense, rigid, does not move with swallowing.

Progression and spread of the entire gland is accompanied by the development of hypothyroidism. For large scale cancer symptoms of compression of the neck: hoarseness, difficulty swallowing and breathing.

Autoimmune chronic thyroiditis: in the first years of illness complaints and symptoms are usually absent. Later, diffuse, and sometimes irregular enlargement of the thyroid gland, a dense, mobile. For large scale cancer symptoms of compression of the neck. As the disease changes that destroy the thyroid gland, leading to impairment of cancer - first the phenomena of hyperthyroidism due to receipt of the blood of a large number of previously developed hormones, in the future (or bypassing the hyperthyroid phase) - in hypothyroidism. The content of thyroid hormones in the blood is reduced. In the diagnosis of great importance to have a titer of antithyroid antibodies determination of antibodies against its own thyroid gland.

Complications

Acute thyroiditis may fail in the formation of thyroid tissue abscess, which is able to break through, and well, if the outside. But if the pus gets into the surrounding tissue, it can flow into the pericardial space, and progressive suppurative inflammation in the tissues of the neck can damage the blood vessels, skid purulent infection of the meninges and brain tissue, and even to the development of a common infection of blood infection (sepsis). To treat an acute thyroiditis should be promptly and carefully.
Lack of treatment for subacute thyroiditis can lead to what would be damaged by a sufficiently large number of thyroid tissue and eventually develops an irreversible impairment of the thyroid gland.

Forecast

With timely and proper treatment initiated acute thyroiditis ends in recovery, and nothing else does not like about yourself.

Subacute thyroiditis usually results in complete recovery. However, after treatment of the thyroid gland seal may remain which are regarded as nodes. They do not require medical intervention.

Unfortunately, most patients with autoimmune thyroiditis over time, reduced thyroid function and develop hypothyroidism, which requires treatment with thyroid hormones.

What can a doctor do?

Treatment for any type of thyroiditis should be supervised by an endocrinologist. In acute thyroiditis prescribe antibiotics, symptomatic agents, vitamin C, vitamins of group B. In acute purulent abscess formation thyroiditis (abscess formation) - surgical treatment.

In subacute thyroiditis - long-term use of corticosteroids (prednisone, dexamethasone), drugs against a number of salicylaldehyde reduction of corticosteroids, with symptoms of hyperthyroidism drugs that reduce the level of thyroid hormones (beta blockers), hypothyroidism - a small dose of thyroid hormone.

In chronic fibrous thyroiditis - effects of hypothyroidism in the presence of thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the symptoms of compression of the neck - surgery.

In chronic autoimmune thyroiditis - Treatment of thyroid hormones. In the absence of goiter reduction on the background of an adequate replacement therapy (3-4 months) prescribe corticosteroids (prednisone) for 2-3 months. In fast-growing, painful forms of goitre, large amounts of the thyroid gland with symptoms of compression of the neck - operative liver.

What can you do?

With the emergence of the first symptoms of thyroiditis should consult a doctor-endocrinologist for help. Treatment should begin as early as possible in order to avoid complications.