OverviewThe chemical structure of insulin is a protein that is produced in the beta cells of the pancreas and secreted into the blood. Insulin is a key regulator of glucose metabolism in humans. Patients with diabetes have a decrease production of this hormone or its complete absence. The only way to treat these patients is the introduction of insulin from the outside. Before insulin was first isolated from the pancreas of animals and began to be used in the treatment of diabetes, many patients died of fatal complications of the disease such as diabetic coma. The first preparations of insulin from the pancreas of pigs and cattle. In recent years, mainly using human insulin preparations, which are genetically engineered by. The advantage of human insulin is that the body does not perceive it as a foreign substance.
Insulin has several properties that define the principles of insulin therapy. First, when receiving insulin through the mouth is destroyed in the gut, or more simply digested. Therefore, the main route of administration of insulin by subcutaneous injection. The second feature is the presence of insulin daily fluctuations in its concentration in human blood. There is a constant, basal insulin levels and the peaks associated with increased concentrations of glucose in the blood after a meal. When insulin therapy is necessary not only to ensure that the basal level, but also to simulate the physiological concentration peaks with additional injections of insulin before meals.
Starting insulin therapy after a thorough examination and diagnosis. Proper treatment is possible only when the scrupulous implementation of the doctor appointments. Treatment requires the active participation of the patient. Therefore, before starting treatment should be to understand all the intricacies of matching insulin doses, to learn the methods of self-control and insulin therapy. Ask your doctor how to more questions. The better you get into the disease, the more efficiently and effectively to your treatment.
Classification of insulins and dosage formsFor the duration of insulin distinguish ultrashort, short and extended (prolonged) action. The differences lie in the time of onset of action, peak activity and duration of action.
Regimen may include one or two insulin injections a prolonged and three or four injections of short-insulin before meals. Doses of insulin are selected individually depending on the level of sugar in the blood and the volume of food intake (counting the number of units of grain per serving).
For ease of manufacture mixed insulins, which contain a short and prolonged insulin action. Moreover, these insulins are produced with different ratios of "short" and "long" units: from 10/90 to 50% / 50%.
There are drugs with different concentrations of insulin in solution: 40 U in 1 ml of the drug, and 100 U in 1 ml of the drug. When you buy insulin, do not forget to pay attention to it, the use of the drug with a different concentration of the same dose can result in overdose or contrary to the lack of effect.
Insulin is produced in various dosage forms, vials of solution, pen with a solution, insulin can remember. Fundamental differences in treatment outcomes between the insulin pump and the mode of insulin several times a day with the help of syringes or injection pens there. Decision to choose the doctor takes the drug in conjunction with the patient.
Insulin is injected subcutaneously. Injection used a few areas: the front surface of the abdomen, antero-external surface of the thighs, the outer surface of the shoulders, buttocks. Keep in mind that insulin is absorbed from different areas at different speeds. For example, the fastest of the abdomen. Places of insulin should be changed, but the change of injection sites should be the same every day, otherwise it can lead to fluctuations in blood sugar levels.
Effective insulin therapy is based not only on the competent calculating insulin doses and careful administration of the drug. The key to successful treatment are the methods of self-control. For learning the basics of patient care and self-control, there are special schools for diabetes. For all issues which arise in the course of your treatment, contact your doctor.