Meanwhile, a predisposition to type 2 diabetes can be detected 5-10 years before the time when glucose tolerance becomes a disease. It is possible to prevent the disease or delay its development with the help of relatively simple measures of medical and non-medical nature.
For the diagnosis is sufficient to glucose tolerance test. It helps to identify problems at a time when the usual test for blood sugar levels have not show abnormalities. Indications for the study are the same as for the test to determine blood sugar levels (refer to resp. Article), but with individual attention to people in a family where there were cases of type 2 diabetes and women suspected of having diabetes during pregnancy.
Methods of testingFirst, a sample of fasting blood glucose level, if at the same time higher than normal (6.7 mmol/l) test is not performed. When glucose in the normal range examinee give to drink a glass (250 ml) of water, which dissolved 75 g of glucose (it is possible with a small amount of citric acid to suppress nausea) and take some blood samples at intervals of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes.
Features of the studyDue to the fact that stress, illness, food intake and other factors the body reacts change in blood sugar levels in order to obtain reliable results you need to follow some rules.
To test for glucose tolerance should be for at least three days before the test to comply with a regular diet (no frills, and fasting), the amount of physical activity should correspond to the familiar rhythm of life.
The study was conducted in the morning on an empty stomach (last meal for 10-14 hours), with the same amount of time you can not smoke or drink anything except water. Just before the fence to exclude blood treatments and medications, they are usually canceled a day before the test.
Blood is taken sitting or lying in the premises should not be cold or hot. Smoke, eat, drink, engage in physical labor is possible only after the full completion of the test.
If you had to be nervous before the test, recently had a severe illness, surgery or acute chronic infection is better to postpone the study. Wrong result could be in women after childbirth or during menstruation, as well as pathologies of the liver and endocrine system, low levels of potassium or diseases affecting the absorption of glucose.
Interpretation of resultsIn a healthy person the blood glucose level increases and then decreases rapidly. In case of violation of glucose tolerance, blood sugar levels above normal but below the diabetic values.
The normal fasting blood glucose level should be below 5.5 mmol/l in the interval 30-90 min after the glucose load - below 11.1 mmol/l, and after two hours no more than 7.8 mmol/l.
If the figures fasting glucose below 6.7 mmol/l in the interval 30-90 min after the glucose load above normal but below 11.1 mmol/l, and in two hours does not fall below 7.8 mmol/l, suggest abuse glucose tolerance.
If the sugar level in the interval 30-90 min after the glucose load above 11.1 mmol/l and 2 hours is not returned to normal, require additional screening for diabetes.
Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance is defined if at least two tests performed on different days, showed elevated levels of glucose in the blood.