There is a form of diabetes that sometimes develops during pregnancy (3-5% of cases), whose pre-pregnancy have never increased the level of glucose (sugar) levels. This is called gestational diabetes, it develops only during pregnancy, after about 20 weeks. The causes of gestational diabetes is not known. During pregnancy the placenta produces hormones necessary for fetal development. If these hormones block the action of the parent insulin, gestational diabetes occurs. This gives rise to a condition that doctors call insulin resistance (insensitivity of cells to insulin) and blood sugar level rises.

If a woman suffers from diabetes, or gestational usual, this excess supply of glucose accumulates in the body of the fetus and converted into fat. Children with excessive development of the subcutaneous fat layer there is a risk of damage to the shoulder bone during delivery. In addition, these infants pancreas produces increased amounts of insulin to dispose of the request by the mother glucose. Therefore, they may experience low blood sugar. Also, such children increases the risk of respiratory disorders in the future, they have increased the likelihood of obesity, as well as adults likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes usually ends after delivery. Mothers who had gestational diabetes during the first pregnancy, the likelihood that it will occur in subsequent pregnancies is approximately two-thirds. In addition, some of them may develop later type 2 diabetes. Sometimes after pregnancy can manifest type 1 diabetes or type 2, which the woman did not know before pregnancy and who require compulsory treatment.

Risk factors for gestational diabetes:

– Senior age for pregnancy. Pregnant women over the age of 40 years, the risk of gestational diabetes is twice higher than the 25-29-year-old pregnant women.
– In the presence of diabetes in close relatives of a woman’s risk of gestational diabetes increases by more than 1.5 times. If one parent has diabetes, the risk is almost doubled if both parents nearly tripled.
– Belonging to the white race is not.
– A high body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy. BMI ranging from 25 to 29.9 doubles the risk of diabetes and a BMI over 30 triples it. Women rise 150-180 cm and weighing 70 pounds has a BMI of 25. For a woman the same height weighing 84 pounds BMI is 30.
– Weight gain during adulthood. A high BMI at age 18, followed by weight gain of 5 to 10 pounds during pregnancy leads to a higher risk of diabetes.
– Smoking.
– The birth of a child with a mass of more than 4.5 kilograms, or stillbirth for unknown reasons in history.

Every pregnant woman should be examined for diabetes in the period from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. If the blood test, the doctor assumes you have diabetes, it can hold another confirmatory test, during which time you will need to drink a glucose solution of certain concentration, and then a few blood test for sugar in a fixed time. Most women do not require insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes.

The reasons

The causes of diabetes are not fully understood. But we know that diabetes can be caused by:

– Heredity;
– An autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin;
– Viral infections, damaging the pancreas, which can then run the autoimmune processes;
– Lifestyle and diet.

Symptoms of diabetes

For 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes: high blood sugar.
For gestational diabetes most weight, an increase in the amount of urine, severe thirst, decreased activity, loss of appetite.

Complications of diabetes

Hyperglycemia – a condition closely associated with diabetes, is the sharp rise in blood glucose levels. This occurs when the body produces little or not enough insulin or if the sensitivity of the receptor cells to insulin is reduced. The state of hyperglycemia is typical for patients with diabetes is the cause of many complications that occur in those suffering from this disease.

Hypoglycemia medical term for low blood sugar. Hypoglycemia is usually a complication of diabetes and is rare in healthy people. (If the person is not suffering from diabetes, hypoglycemia occurs, usually a sign of serious illness, such as insulinsekretiruyuschey tumor or liver disease). Severe hyperglycemia (very high blood sugar) in combination with a high content of acidic metabolites in the body can lead to confusion and fainting.

High blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetic kidney disease.
Blindness (due to vascular lesions of the retina), cataracts and other disorders of vision.
Slow healing of wounds.

Gangrene (tissue necrosis), because the blood supply to the tissue breaks down or even stops. Usually gangrene affects the big toes and feet.

Frequent infections, especially infections of the skin and soft tissue, vaginal infection.
Numbness in the extremities due to neuropathy (nerve damage) with the loss of sensitivity, especially in the feet.

What you can do?

If you think you have diabetes, consult your doctor.
Eat a diet low in sugar and fat and high fiber foods throughout their lives. Need to lose excess weight. Monitor the consumption of refined sugar. Distribute the time of meals throughout the day. (Proper diet and weight control are often sufficient measures to control the flow of non-insulin dependent diabetes and to prevent it from developing in people prone to this disease).

Exercise regularly. You can thus maintain an optimal weight.

Regularly inspect the surface of the body, especially the foot, so as not to miss the appearance of wounds or infections, never walk barefoot. Every day, wash your feet, wiping them carefully after washing and apply talcum powder on your feet. Particular attention should cut your nails on the hands and feet. Shave very carefully. Carefully observe hygiene. Maintain a normal condition of the teeth and mouth clean.

Take your medicines strictly according to the instructions your doctor. Never stop taking medication without consulting your doctor. Should regularly measure the sugar level in blood and urine regardless of whether you suffer from diabetes or not (this is especially important if a family member suffers from diabetes).

If you have diabetes and are planning a pregnancy, you should consult your doctor in advance to adjust blood sugar levels before pregnancy. If you have found risk factors for gestational diabetes, you should discuss with your doctor which ones you can save your level, such as losing weight, starting a diet and doing exercises before pregnancy. Quit smoking if you smoke. Immediately call your doctor if you have the first signs indicating the development of gestational diabetes. These symptoms include frequent urination, thirst, and \ or appetite, decreased activity, loss of weight.

A few steps to self-manage diabetes.

1. For diabetes type 1 or 2:

Follow the doctor’s recommendations on how to control diabetes.
Follow the doctor’s recommendations for diet and exercise.

2. For those suffering from gestational diabetes:

Follow the doctor’s recommendations for diet and exercise.
Treatment should include a measurement of blood sugar levels.

The injection of insulin:

1. The stomach for rapid-acting insulin.
2. Forearm insulin action secondary.
3. Thigh to slow the action of insulin.
4. Bottom to the slow action of insulin
5. Distance equal to the width of one hand on the shoulder, elbow, hip and knee.
6. Skin
7. Subcutaneous fat (between the skin and muscles)
8. Muscle.

Foot care for diabetics:

1. Thoroughly dry the feet, especially between the toes to prevent the growth of fungal flora.
2. Every day, pay attention, do not appear on the feet blisters, damage, scratches, roughness of the skin or ingrown nails. Visit your doctor if you notice at least one of these changes.
3. Every day, change your socks and stockings. Socks made of cotton material is better than synthetics prevent sweating.
4. Wear soft leather shoes, leather legs that can breathe. Make sure that the shoes matched correctly.
5. Wash your feet daily with warm water and soap and water softening.
6. Carefully cut the nails, carefully manipulate the jagged edges of sawing.
7. The skin on the soles of the feet and heels should lanolin to soften, but do not put it between his fingers. If you are prone to severe sweating, apply foot powder on foot or baby powder.
8. Every day, check your shoes, if there is any crack in it, rough, protruding nails or any other irregularities that can damage skin or cause her annoyance.
9. Do not walk barefoot at home or on the street. Wear comfortable shoes, slippers or sandals that are good “sit” on the leg.

Not recommended:

A. Dip his feet in hot water or hot water to water them.
B. Do not use the patch for the treatment of corns and other products to treat damage to the feet, sold in a pharmacy.

Recommended exercises for people with diabetes:

1. Exercise on the tips of the toes (standing up on tiptoes)
A) keep hold of the chair
B) alternately stand on your toes and lower yourself.
C) Repeat this exercise 20 times.
2. The scope of the legs.
A) Stand up, holding on to the table
B) Stand with one foot on the book, the other foot is on the weight.
C) Swish the second leg back and forth 10 times.
D) Repeat the same with the other leg.
3. Stretching the calf muscles
A) lean your hands on the wall.
B) Foot position at some distance from the wall, the entire sole should adhere to the floor
C) Bend arms at elbows 10 times, with the back and legs at the knee joints should be straight and the heel should not lift off the floor
D) For each flexion hold hands flexed about 10 seconds.
4. Bending legs at the knee joints.
A) Stand up, holding the chair.
B) Take deep squats with your back straight.
C) Repeat the squat 10 times (start with 5 and gradually increase the number of sit-ups to 10)
5. Daily walks
A) Walk every day from 30 minutes to an hour.
B) Try to increase the duration of walking each week.
6. Driving the ball
A) Sit on a chair with back, put your feet on the rubber ball.
B) Capture the ball toes, then release it.
C) Repeat this exercise several times for both legs.

What can a doctor?

Your doctor may prescribe you a blood test to see the original sugar levels and to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes, and then checked with a blood test to see if blood sugar levels under control.

Your doctor may recommend a proper diet and exercise program.

Prescribe drugs for diabetes or insulin injections if necessary.
Your doctor can teach you how to use the device for measuring blood glucose levels, to explain to you how and where to inject insulin, so you can make them yourself.
Watch for the possible development of complications and assign timely treatment.

Preventive measures

Try not to eat refined sugar, honey, do not abuse the sweets and other carbohydrates, fats and salt. If you are overweight, try to reset it. Exercise regularly. Exercise in the open air (such as cycling, jogging, strenuous sports, swimming, active walking) reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and help you keep the weight in the optimal framework, and the body maximize the effect of insulin action. If your family has diabetes and you are more than 40 years, check blood glucose levels 2 hours after a heavy meal. Such a test should be conducted once a year or two, as Many people, for several years with the disease do not know it.

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