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Diabetic Nephropathy

Overview

Nephropathy - a kidney disease, which impaired their functioning. In diabetes nephropathy develops as a result of damage to the renal vessels. The greater the duration of diabetes, the greater the likelihood of developing nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is now the leading cause of high morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus.

The reasons

The cause of vascular lesions of the kidneys is hyperglycemia and high blood pressure. In these circumstances, the kidneys are no longer able to adequately perform the function of filtration and concentration in urine determined by substances that are normally retained by the kidneys and remain in the body (eg, protein).

Symptoms of diabetic nephropathy

The risk of this complication is the fact that developing quite slowly and gradually, diabetic kidney disease for a long time unnoticed, as clinically not cause the patient discomfort. And only in the severe (often terminal) stage renal disease the patient has a complaint related to the intoxication of the body nitrogen slag, but at this stage to help the patient radical is not always possible. Pay attention to itself and the appearance of the following symptoms as soon as possible contact your doctor: swelling of hands, ankles, or under the eyes, shortness of breath when walking or climbing uphill, fatigue, insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea.

What you can do?

The main task of the doctor and the patient is in the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy and implementation of adequate treatment of this complication.

Diabetic nephropathy can be detected at an early stage. You must take regular urine (microalbuminuria in / of trace protein in urine / creatinine and urea). Patients with type 1 diabetes must take these tests every six months, starting five years after the onset of the disease. Patients with type 2 diabetes once a year. This allows us to identify the beginning of kidney disease long before clinical manifestations and to prevent its progression. Such analyzes do in most laboratories. In addition, there are now various methods of rapid diagnosis of microalbuminuria: the test strips for urine absorbing pills, etc. Using these methods, you can quickly within 5 min with sufficient precision to determine the presence of trace of albumin in the urine.

What can a doctor?

If the occasional urine albumin concentration has repeatedly revealed more than 20 mg / L, required a study of daily urine. The analysis of daily urine will determine the amount of urine, and loss of protein per day. The appearance of a patient with diabetes mellitus constant microalbuminuria indicates the imminent development (within the next 5-7 years), severe stages of diabetic nephropathy. Treatment of diabetic nephropathy includes the first payment of diabetes, and in case of high blood pressure - the maintenance of numbers, as much as possible close to normal. At a certain stage renal disease may need a special diet with restriction of protein, which will appoint a physician.

Preventive measures

Prevent diabetic nephropathy will help control blood pressure (blood pressure should not exceed 130/85), smoking (nicotine affects the inner layer of the vascular walls and learning a vasoconstrictor effect) and the maintenance of blood pressure and blood sugar levels within normal limits.