OverviewThe syndrome of diabetic foot is a complex set of anatomical and functional changes that occur in various forms in 30-80% of patients with diabetes mellitus.
The reasonsThe reasons for the development of diabetic foot syndrome is a nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy), damage to peripheral vascular disease and infections that develop because of impaired blood supply and innervation of the foot.
SymptomsThe first symptoms of these changes may be different: burning sensation, "downhill tingling" pins and needles, numbness in the feet.
ComplicationsFor the diabetic foot syndrome (diabetic neuropathy, neuropathy) is characterized by reduction in all kinds of sensitivity (eg, pain, temperature), which is very dangerous for the patient because of the possibility of occurrence is not noticed by the time microtraumas. These skin injuries can occur when walking barefoot, shoes in contact with foreign objects, wearing incorrect shoes matched, the processing of nails, corns. The resulting microtrauma will be very bad because of reduced blood supply to heal. In addition, the affected skin is incredibly attractive for bacterial and fungal flora. That's why diabetes is a high risk of gangrene of the foot.
What you can do?Each patient must be familiar with the complex of preventive measures to care for your feet.
Keep your feet clean: wash them daily in warm water and soap. Before placing his feet in the water, check the temperature of her hands so as not to burn yourself. Wipe the feet with a towel, but do not rub them (between the fingers just get wet.)
Do not trim the nails (so you can get hurt, did not notice it), and treat nail file, nail edge opilivaya horizontally (no cutting corners). Do not try to handle the foot (toes, horny skin) with sharp objects (scissors, razors, etc.) and chemicals. To do this, use a pumice stone, and do it regularly.
For dry skin, lubricate their feet (but not the interdigital spaces) fat cream.
Never go barefoot, so as not to risk a possible leg injury at the same time.
Do not warm the feet with the help of appliances, heaters, radiators. With reduced sensitivity you can get burned and do not notice it. To warm the feet using warm socks or gymnastics.
Every day, you or your relatives should inspect their feet. Do not forget to explore the spaces between your fingers. Soles of the feet can be viewed through a mirror. If any significant changes (ingrown nail, sealing, crack, ulcer), contact your doctor.
Every day, change your socks or stockings. Wear only appropriate sized stockings or socks without tight elastic bands and rough seams.
Shoes should be comfortable and not rub. Do not wear shoes with narrow toes, high heels and a bridge between your fingers. Before putting on shoes, check out his hand, whether there are folds, protruding nails, cracks, leather lining with jagged edges, as well as chance fell back small items.
If you hurt yourself: scratches, abrasions, etc. need to handle special antiseptics (furatsilin, dioxidine) or hydrogen peroxide, then apply a sterile dressing. Iodine, alcohol and manganese are contraindicated because of the worsening wound healing, besides themselves can cause burns, as well as to paint the wound, hiding the originating process. If the injury does not heal, be sure to consult a doctor.
In addition to the above, the treatment and prevention of foot lesions include normalization of blood glucose control and smoking cessation.