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Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Overview

Diabetes - a disease in which the body can not properly metabolize carbohydrates and to a lesser extent, other food components. This disease is caused by deficiency of insulin, a hormone which is produced by the pancreas and which requires the body to convert glucose and other nutrients into energy. In diabetes mellitus type 1 (insulin-dependent), the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. As a result, the level of glucose in the blood, which has a damaging effect on blood vessels, nerves, kidneys and other organs, and penetrates into the urine. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes put on the analysis of blood glucose.

People suffering from type 1 diabetes requires daily insulin injections. Diet, regular exercise and careful self-monitoring of blood glucose are important for treatment.

Currently there are no methods of preventing type 1 diabetes.

The reasons

Diabetes occurs apparently due to a combination of several factors, including as a result of genetic predisposition to the disease. It is assumed that the precipitating factors may be a viral infection, trauma, pathologic mechanisms that trigger an immune response, resulting in the destruction of pancreatic cells that produce insulin.

Type 1 diabetes usually develops in people under the age of 20 years. The disease is not amenable to therapy, but it can be controlled by daily insulin injections.
Uncontrolled diabetes affects almost all organs. When the body is unable to utilize glucose, the brain and other organs are exhausted, even if that person can consume large amounts of food. The body tries to compensate for the necessary energy through metabolism of fats, which leads to the formation of ketones, toxic substances, which may have a damaging effect on the brain and cause a coma.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes

Extreme thirst, frequent urination, rapid weight loss, weakness and fatigue, irritability, nausea and vomiting.

Complications of diabetes mellitus type 1

Due to the high content of glucose in the blood are damaged small vessels, especially the eyes and kidneys. Therefore, in people with diabetes are at high risk of blindness and kidney failure. Recent studies have shown that the damaging effects on the kidneys can be prevented through the use of captopril (a drug commonly prescribed for high blood pressure), especially in patients with impaired renal function. It is also possible violation of the circulation in the extremities (the feet), which can lead to amputation.

When diabetes affects the nerves, which is accompanied by a feeling of numbness or pain, especially in the lower extremities.

In diabetes also increases the risk of high blood pressure and increased cholesterol levels, which explains the reason for the high incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke in these patients. In connection with damage to nerves and blood vessels in men with diabetes develop impotence.

Women with diabetes have difficulty with the onset of pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs, the patient requires special medical supervision and careful self-control, the child was born healthy.
If type 1 diabetes is not treated, may lead to death.

What you can do?

If any symptoms of diabetes should immediately undergo a medical examination. Once diagnosed with diabetes need regular medical supervision and monitoring of blood glucose in order to avoid complications. For effective treatment of diabetes should carefully monitor their condition.

People suffering from type 1 diabetes should:

- To receive daily injections of insulin;
- Regularly eat food must be carefully balanced;
- To monitor glucose and cholesterol, including foods in your diet low in fat and high in dietary fiber;
- Exercise regularly;
- To determine blood glucose at home using simple devices;
- Prescribed by a doctor to monitor glucose in the urine.

When the first symptoms of colds or other infections require immediate medical consultation because in such situations may need to change the dose of insulin.

People suffering from diabetes should also observe an ophthalmologist.

What can a doctor?

Once diagnosed with type 1 diabetes patients may require hospitalization for as long as there will not be installed an adequate dose of insulin and the patient does not learn the basics of self-control. Subsequently, the frequency of visits to the doctor determines, depending on the need for the various analyzes of the patient and the risk of complications that require special additional treatment.