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Endocrinology

Acromegaly
Acromegaly is characterized by a disproportionate growth of the skeleton, soft tissues and internal organs. If acromegaly is changed appearance, facial features become larger, increasing the size of the feet and hands. If untreated acromegaly leads to early disability in patients of the active working age, and increases the risk of premature mortality.

Gestational diabetes
Diabetes is associated with the violation of the number or activity of insulin, a hormone that allows glucose transport from blood to body cells. If the body can not produce insulin in sufficient amounts or use it properly, increases blood sugar levels. Diabetes can not be cured completely, but subject to lifelong treatment can maintain the level of glucose in the normal range.

Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism - not the disease itself, and the condition of the body with a low level of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is one of the most common diseases of the endocrine system. An extreme form of hypothyroidism in adults - a disease myxedema in children - kretinizm.Chem at an earlier age manifest hypothyroidism, so to more serious complications can result.

Diabetic nephropathy
Nephropathy - a kidney disease, which impaired their functioning. In diabetes nephropathy develops as a result of damage to the renal vessels. The greater the duration of diabetes, the greater the likelihood of developing nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is now the leading cause of high morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic retinopathy
Pathological changes in the eye in diabetes is most often occur in 5-10 years from onset; primarily affected the eye - the retina. The mechanism of destruction is in violation of the smallest blood vessels in the fundus. In the early stages of visual acuity is not reduced, and people may not know about the beginning eyes are affected.

Diabetic foot
Diabetic foot syndrome is a complex set of anatomical and functional changes that occur in various forms in 30-80% of patients with diabetes mellitus. The reasons for the development of diabetic foot syndrome is a nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy), damage to peripheral vascular disease and infections that develop because of impaired blood supply and innervation of the foot.

Diet for Diabetes Type 1
Diabetes mellitus is traditionally considered a disease requiring serious limitations in the diet. In grocery stores, even department to identify diabetic products, ie products authorized for patients with diabetes mellitus. Around the diet of diabetes there were a number of myths and false notions.

Diet for Diabetes Type 2
Changes in metabolism in diabetes mellitus type II are caused by the presence of resistance to insulin, as well as a violation of its secretion by cells of the pancreas. This means that insulin can not fully perform its function as tissue sensitivity to insulin is reduced. To maintain adequate metabolic control in such an environment requires greater and greater amounts of insulin that the pancreas is no longer able to provide.

Insulinotherapy
Insulin is a key regulator of glucose metabolism in humans. Patients with diabetes have a decrease production of this hormone or its complete absence. The only way to treat these patients is the introduction of insulin from the outside.

When diabetes is attacking children...
Contrary to popular belief that only older people suffer from chronic diseases such as diabetes, a growing number of children around the world diagnosed with the disease. A variation of the disease, which affects children, called type 1 diabetes. Also known as "juvenile diabetes", the disease is diagnosed in approximately every 40 children.

Drug therapy in diabetes mellitus type 2
The mainstay of treatment of the disease is adherence to a rigid diet and maintaining a healthy lifestyle with regular physical activity. In this case the appointment of special medicines, generally requires the majority of patients. Depending on the severity of the disease are used to treat hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Selection of treatment is carried out under the control of carbohydrate metabolism.

The metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome - a complex metabolic, hormonal and clinical disorders, which are risk factors for cardiovascular zabolevaniy.K Unfortunately, the incidence of metabolic syndrome increases with each godom.Svoevremennoe examination and correction of metabolic prevents development of severe diseases such as hypertension, diabetes type II, coronary heart disease.

Methods of self-monitoring in diabetes
The main goal of diabetes treatment is to maintain blood glucose levels as close as possible to normal. Only regular and frequent self-monitoring of blood sugar will allow you and your doctor to judge the correctness of the treatment of disease. In addition, in the home can be quite accurately determine the level of ketone bodies, glucose and protein in the urine. These indicators will also help your doctor to increase the effectiveness of therapy and prevent complications.

Impaired glucose tolerance
In addition to the actual form of diabetes there is a hidden (latent) diabetes when clinical signs of diabetes are not yet available, but for various reasons, blood sugar adequately increased and slowly decreased. Such a condition called "impaired glucose tolerance". It is dangerous not only to the development of clinical diabetes in the future, but also the fact that people with impaired glucose tolerance tend to be more severe course of disease.

Adrenocortical insufficiency
Adrenocortical insufficiency - a syndrome, all of whose manifestations are due to insufficient allocation of adrenal hormones in the blood. Adrenocortical insufficiency is acute and chronic. Chronic adrenocortical insufficiency may be primary and vtorichnoy.Ostraya adrenal insufficiency, or addisonichesky crisis - acute coma.

Lactose intolerance
Intolerance - the inability to digest lactose, often associated with deficiency of the enzyme lactase. After about 30 minutes after consuming milk or dairy products for people with lactose intolerance can be diarrhea (diarrhea) or cramping (abdominal cramps) and bloating (increased formation of gas in the intestines), the severity of which depends on the level of lack of enzymes. However, a person with a slight deficiency of enzymes may not experience any symptoms at all.

New trends in the treatment of diabetes
Diabetes mellitus, according to many experts in the field of health, takes on the character of an epidemic disease, as more and more people suffer from it. In this age of people affected by the disease, becoming more youthful. And there are at risk not only to those who have a family member was ill with diabetes, but also those who have just developed the disease over time.

Complications of diabetes
Hyperglycemia - a medical term that is used to refer to high blood sugar. The level of sugar in the normal controls the hormone insulin. Hyperglycemia in diabetics can cause excessive and improper diet, insufficient physical activity, skipping regular insulin or receiving glucose-lowering drugs, stress, infections, and even menstruation. Hypoglycemia - a medical term which means low blood sugar. This condition occurs only in patients receiving antidiabetic medications (insulin or hypoglycemic tablets), and is not a complication of the disease and treatment.

Osteoporosis
The word "osteoporosis" means "porous bones". In osteoporosis bones become thinner and more fragile than they should be. The disease is common in people older than 60-70 years and in menopausal women and is the main cause of frequent fractures in the elderly. For the diagnosis of osteoporosis is applied X-rays and bone densitometry.

Complete Pregnancy and diabetes
Pregnant women with diabetes, the most common problem when it comes to the health of the unborn child, is a condition called "macrosomia", or an abnormally large size of the fetus. This is due to the fact that the mother's blood, the patient with diabetes mellitus, and circulates in the body of the fetus in the womb. As a result, the fetus produces insulin to regulate blood sugar, which leads to an increase in adipose tissue and the fetus receives large.

Proper nutrition for pregnant women with diabetes
Pregnancy - is perhaps the most miraculous event in the life of every woman. That is why nutrition - particularly for chronic disease such as diabetes - should be paid close attention to the health and well-being not only mothers, but also the fetus.

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (insulin-dependent)
In diabetes mellitus type 1 (insulin-dependent), the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. As a result, the level of glucose in the blood, which has a damaging effect on blood vessels, nerves, kidneys and other organs, and penetrates into the urine. People suffering from type 1 diabetes requires daily insulin injections. Diet, regular exercise and careful self-monitoring of blood glucose are important for treatment.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (insulin-independent)
People with type 2 diabetes, the pancreas may produce insufficient insulin or the body can not properly use it. As a result of increased blood glucose, resulting in damage to blood vessels and other organs. This form of diabetes occurs in middle age and older.

Cushing's syndrome
Cushing's syndrome - a collection of symptoms that occur during long-term effects on the body of excess glucocorticoids, which can occur when an excess of their allocation of the adrenal glands, ectopic tumors or long-term treatment with steroids.

Thyroiditis
Thyroiditis - an inflammation of the thyroid unchanged glands. Autoimmune chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) - the most common inflammatory disease of the thyroid glands. Unfortunately, most patients with autoimmune thyroiditis over time is reduced thyroid function and develop hypothyroidism, which requires treatment with thyroid hormones.

Thyrotoxicosis
Hyperthyroidism - a condition caused by a persistent increase in the level of thyroid hormones (thyroid hormone poisoning). With thyrotoxicosis in the blood to an excess of thyroid hormones and compounded by the effects that they cause in the norm. At several times increases the intensity of metabolism in the body. Despite the constant overeating, patients do not recover, and, conversely, lose weight. Many patients with thyrotoxicosis point constant thirst, excessive urination and diarrhea.

Physical activity in diabetes
Diabetes - a disease that requires not only the active medication, but a healthy lifestyle with diet and well-chosen mode of exercise.