A healthy human blood pressure numbers range from 100/60 to 140/90.
Increasing the pressure above these figures can be suspected hypertension.
In its origin identified two forms of the disease:
1. of essential or primary hypertension that is independent.
2. symptomatic or secondary, ie, hypertension, emerged against the background of an illness, often endocrine or kidney.
hypertension is diagnosed by the systematic measurement of pressure on both hands during the day. Also used echocardiography, ECG, angiography and Doppler ultrasound. If there is a suspicion that secondary hypertension is assigned a full examination of urinary and endocrine systems.
For drawing up the plan for the treatment of hypertension, you must first determine the cause of the disease and the degree of its severity.
When hypertension mild appoint non-pharmacological treatment. Typically, it takes a substantial reconsideration and change of lifestyle.
First, the patient should reduce the use of salt up to 4.5 g per day. The restriction also applies to alcohol and coffee. From cigarettes should be abandoned completely the same.
Second, be careful with any weight. Every extra pound puts a strain on the heart and blood vessels and increases the risk of disease progression.
And finally, patients have to fill your diet with vegetables, fruits, seafood, as well as foods rich in potassium, calcium and magnesium.
If all these measures do not bring the desired result, the doctor prescribes medication.
MedicationIn hypertensive uses several major classes of drugs: beta-blockers, diuretics, calcium antagonists, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers and angiotensin II. All drugs have their indications and contraindications, side effects, and the characteristic points. That is why pick therapy and medicines scheme should only be qualified. Self-medication can lead to very negative consequences.
Beta-blockersBeta-blockers have long been considered the main drugs for the treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents. Currently, their use is somewhat limited. This is largely due to a number of side effects of this therapy. These include insomnia, fatigue, memory loss, bradycardia, depression, increased blood sugar, muscle weakness and emotional instability.
When using beta-blockers should be carried ECG 1 times a month, as well as control the level of glucose and lipids in blood. Just need regular evaluation of emotional state and muscle tone patient.
Calcium-channel blockersIn the present preferred sustained calcium channel blockers, that is a long-acting drugs. Of the side effects observed peripheral edema, muscle weakness, dizziness, flushing, palpitations, and gastrointestinal disorders.
Patients also requires regular assessment of the emotional state and muscle tone.
DiureticsDiuretics are appointed, usually in the first place. Often for prolonged periods. The main disadvantage of this therapy is to reduce the level of potassium in the blood, impaired potency in men and orthostatic syncope. Therefore, the use of diuretics, continuous monitoring of the level of potassium, sugar and blood lipids. As well as the monthly ECG.
Antagonists of angiotensin IIDrugs in this group, block recipes in the arterial wall to angiotensin II, thereby preventing spasm of blood vessels and increase blood pressure.
Alpha-blockersPressure reduction using these agents is the result of blocking receptors in the arterial wall. Thus drug profilaktiruet spasm relaxes arteries expand its height and, consequently, lower blood pressure.
ACE inhibitorsCurrent formulations of blocking an enzyme which participates in the formation of pressor substance angiotensin II.
As mentioned above, the formulations are applied in combination. Be the correct treatment regimen that will bring the desired reduction in blood pressure with minimal side effects, can only qualified!