Myocardial infarction – is the fall portion of the heart muscle, caused by acute blood circulation in this area.
How to show a statistical study, myocardial infarction occurs more frequently in men aged 40 to 60 years. In women, the disease occurs in about one and a half to two times less.
Myocardial infarction occurs in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), atherosclerosis, hypertension. Risk factors for myocardial infarction refers smoking (as it causes a narrowing of the coronary vessels of the heart and reduces the blood supply of the heart muscle), obesity, lack of physical activity.
At the same time, myocardial infarction may be the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease.
Unfortunately, myocardial infarction is now one of the major causes of disability in adults, and the mortality rate among all patients is 10-12%.
Causes myocardial infarction
The oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the heart muscle delivers a special extensive network of blood vessels, called coronary. Myocardial infarction is one of the occlusion thrombus such receptacles (95% of the thrombus formed in the coronary arteries of atherosclerotic plaques). Oxygen supply of the heart muscle cells, which are fueled overlapped artery, enough for 10 seconds. Another 30 minutes is viable heart muscle. Then begins the process of irreversible changes in the cells and by the third or sixth hour of the start of occlusion of the heart muscle dies on this site. Depending on the size of the dead area is isolated large and small-focal infarction. If necrosis captures the entire thickness of the myocardium, it is called transmural.
The clinical picture of myocardial infarction is diverse, which makes the correct diagnosis as soon as possible.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of three criteria:
Changes in the electrocardiogram
Change the parameters of the biochemical analysis of blood, talking about the damage of the muscle cells of the heart.
In doubtful cases, doctors use additional studies, such as radioisotope methods to identify necrotic myocardium.
Symptoms of myocardial infarction
Normally myocardial infarction identified the following features:
Intense compressive long-pressing pain in the chest in the heart, can give in the arm, neck, back or shoulder blades area;
Pain persists after taking nitroglycerin;
Pale skin, cold sweat;
It is not always a disease shows the classical picture. A person may feel a discomfort in the chest or disruption of the heart. In some cases there is no pain at all. In addition, there are atypical cases of myocardial infarction, when the disease develops difficulty breathing or shortness of breath with pain in the abdomen. Such cases are especially difficult to diagnose.
Complications of myocardial infarction
In the absence of timely treatment of myocardial infarction may lead to congestive heart failure, cardiogenic shock, heart failure, heart rhythm disorders, and other dangerous conditions.
Complications associated with myocardial infarction, require immediate medical help.
What you can do?
If you find yourself in, or close the symptoms described above, an urgent need to call an ambulance. Before the arrival of the doctor should give first aid – to give the man a comfortable sitting or lying position, give nitroglycerin (it resolves the language) and corvalol (30-40 drops inside).
What can a doctor?
In order to avoid errors in the slightest suspicion of heart attack patients as soon as possible brought to the hospital. Treatment of myocardial infarction is necessarily spent in the intensive care unit of a hospital.
Treatment includes painkillers, drugs, dissolving a blood clot, medications that reduce blood pressure, reduce blood volume, reducing the heart rate. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the time elapsed since the onset of the disease before reaching the hospital.
After the hospital begins unusually important period of rehabilitation, which lasts up to 6 months. The doctor will prescribe the necessary treatment. Some drugs will take a lifetime. However, when performing assignments, quitting smoking and a diet people after myocardial infarction many years live a full healthy life.
Prevention of heart attack
Prevention of myocardial infarction is an annual check-ups and timely adequate treatment of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and others
The diagnosis of ischemic heart disease is the basis for the assessment of coronary artery disease by coronary angiography (coronary angiography). Specially made X-rays allow us to determine the exact location of atherosclerotic plaques and the degree of narrowing of the coronary arteries. If there are indications found the restriction may be extended from inside the vessel – a procedure called coronary angioplasty. Furthermore, the coronary artery can be implanted stent – a metal frame that will maintain vessel patency. In some cases a complex operation coronary artery bypass surgery, when inserted additional vessels between the aorta and coronary arteries, bypassing the constriction of the coronary vessel and creating the possibility that the blood flows to the heart muscle.