GeneralThe mitral valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart disease, in which the deflection mitral valve into the left atrium during left ventricle contraction. Normally during atrial valve is open and blood flows into the ventricle. Then, the valve is closed and there is a reduction ventricle through which blood is ejected into the aorta. If mitral valve prolapse "bowing" the leaflets during contraction of the left ventricle leads to the fact that part of the blood flows back into the atrium. Clinical signs of MVP are shown only at the expressed reverse casting of blood. This defect typically occurs in young people, often in women aged 14 to 30 years. In the majority of cases are asymptomatic MVP does not lead to violations of the heart and is a random diagnostic discovery during heart echocardiogram. In rare cases the value of the return throw the blood is high and requires correction of vice, until the surgery.
Causes of the diseaseReason MVP is not completely clear. It is known that the MVP is often seen in patients with hereditary disorders of connective tissue dysplasia. For example, when Ehlers - Danlos syndrome, Marfan's, osteogenesis imperfecta.
Symptoms of MVPIn most cases, mitral valve prolapse are asymptomatic and detected incidentally during prophylactic examination.
The symptoms of MVP include:
- Pain in the left side of chest (pain not associated with exercise and is not stopped upon receipt of nitroglycerin)
- Shortness of breath (there is a desire to make a deep, full breath)
- A sense of frequent palpitations or vice versa rare heartbeat;
- Dizziness, fainting, and preunconscious conditions;
- Minor "wanton" fever;
- Morning and night headaches.
The listed symptoms are not specific. However, surveys of young people with similar complaints often detected MVP.
Diagnosis of mitral valve prolapseAuscultation of the heart therapist or cardiologist can hear the characteristic noise. If you suspect a heart disease patient is sent on electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiogram of the heart (echocardiogram).
TreatmentIn asymptomatic mitral valve prolapse without symptoms of mitral valve insufficiency no need for treatment. Recommended control echocardiogram 1 per year, monitoring by a cardiologist, the rejection of the use of strong tea, coffee, alcohol, smoking.
Active treatment is only necessary when the prolapse is accompanied by a rhythm disturbance of the heart and pain in the heart. In this case, may require special medication that will appoint a cardiologist.
In the presence of mitral regurgitation in some cases, shows how to make plastics or prosthetic valve.
ComplicationsMVP in most of the cases are favorable, however, can sometimes lead to serious complications
- Mitral insufficiency
- Infective endocarditis.;